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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Goal The goal of the experiment was to test the efficacy of injection of gamma globulin antibodies in children as a way of protecting against later, more serious instances of hepatitis. These tests were done with the purpose of finding the best means of protecting children against hepatitis. Experimentation lasted from the early 1950s to 1971. WILLOWBROOK HEPATITIS EXPERIMENTS Procedure/Subjects Researchers found subjects at the Willowbrook State School, an institution that cared for mentally ill children and had a high incidence of hepatitis. Newly admitted children were injected with the gamma globulin antibodies and either infected (as the experimental group) or not (the control group). Why These Subjects? The Willowbrook State School was chosen as a testing site due to the disabilities that its inhabitants faced. These children were wholly incapable of self-advocacy, and were effectively marginalized from society. Although parental consent was obtained, the letters were broad and lacked any information about possible risk. Participants themselves were unable fully understand the implications of the experiments. Why Humans? Scientific Importance Controlling Experiments It this case, it was necessary to test human subjects due to the specificity of the studies. Krugman sought the best protection for children against hepatitis: it would have been difficult to antici-pate long term effects or accurately determine the efficacy of the injections without testing the target group This experiment proved that the injection of gamma globulin antibodies provide protection against Hepatitis A, and helped with the identification of Hepatitis B at the school Attempts to govern human experimentation and prevent further unethical research include the Helsinki Declaration of 1966, which declared that informed consent (including knowledge of risks and expected outcomes) was required, that experimentation should be done on animals when possible, and that informed consent should be handled with particularcare with minors. In 1978 and 1979, special protections for prisoners or similarly vulnerable subjects were implemented, and the importance of the Hippocratic Oath and the principle of first do no harm were emphasized. 1983 brought special protections for children. This photograph shows two of the mentally illpatients at Willowbrook State School in New York.We chose this image because the helplessness of the patients and expresses the inhumanity of performing experiments on subjects that aren't able to understand the implications
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