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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Scare tacticsUsed to persuade people to be scared of whatever the author/speaker wants them to be afraid of Losing jobs due to immigrants, health problems, etc.Either-or-choicesTwo options given (one obviously more preferred than the other) to twist the reader/listener into thinking the way they wantSlippery slope The argument becomes wrong headed when a writer exaggerates the likely consequences of an action to likely scare a readerGay marriage argument, parent attempting to keep their child out of trouble, etc.Actions do have consequences but not always as dire as the writer portraysOverly sentimental appealsUse tender emotions to distract readers from factsHighly personal, focusing on heartwarming/wrenching situations to make the readers feel guilty if they challenge the idea/policy/proposal Used largely in TV news= high ratingsBandwagon appealsUrge people to follow the same path as everyone else (explained in the name really...)Commonly argued by children "but everyone else is going to the movies tonight "Not all bandwagon approaches are as transparentWar on drugs, campaign against drunk driving, defense of marriage "If I can get everyone else to think this way my argument will appear stronger" Fallacies of emotional arguments Dogmatism A writer who assumes/asserts that a particular position is the ONLY ONE that is acceptable. This is a fallacy of character that undermines the trust that must exist between those who make and listen to arguments"This is the only way you should think!"(Race, sexism, sexuality, etc.)Appeals to false authorityOccurs when writers offer themselves or other authorities as sufficient warrant for believing a claimClaim "X is true because I say so" warrant "what I say must be trueAd hominem arguments Attacks the character of the person rather than the claims they makeStack the deckWhen writers only show one side of the story, most commonly the side that supports their claim. This however could become a big mistake by causing the reader to not trust you Fallacies of ethical arguments Hasty generalization An inference drawn from insufficient evidence.Faulty casualty The faulty assumption that because one situation follows another, the second situation caused the first. Begging the questionTo assume the conclusion of an argument Equivocation Half truths or lies that give an honest appearance Non sequiturAn argument where the claim, reason, and warrant don't connect logically Straw manAn argument created that is easy to knock down to make the actual argument stand outRed herring Changes the subject so abruptly it throws the listeners or readers off track Fallacies of logical arguments
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