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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 US v. Nixon (1974) Marbury v. Madison (1803) Gibbons v. Odgen (1824) Clinton v. New York (1998) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) SUPREME COURT CASES William Marbury was named Justice of the Peace for the District of Columbia by President John Adams before the end of his administration. Jefferson Administration chose not to honor those appointments because these last-minute appointments were never fully finalized. The disgruntled appointees invoked an act of Congress and sued for their jobs in the Supreme Court >Did Marbury have a right to the writ for which he petitioned?> Did the laws of the United States allow the courts to grant Marbury such a writ? > If they did, could theSupreme Court issue such a writ? Justice John Marshall held Marbury was entitled to his Commission when Adams signed the Commissions prior to leaving office, but ruled the denial of the Commission fell into the latter category and was reviewable by the courts.Marbury was denied his commission (4-0 in favor of Madison) In 1972, President Richard Nixon was running for reelection against Senator George McGovern. Five months before the election, an alert security guard found burglars in the Democratic Party headquarters. Reporters connected the burglars to high-ranking officials in the White House. Nixon denied any connection to the break-in. However, an independent Congressional investigation revealed the existence of audiotapes of the President discussing the break-in with its organizers.Nixon refused to turn the tapes over to Congress, claiming the tapes were covered by "executive privilege.">Is the President's right to safeguard certain information, using his "executive privilege" confidentiality power, entirely immune from judicial review? Warren E. Burger's Court ruled unanimously (8-0) that PresidentRichard Nixon had to surrender the tapes. They acknowledged that the President had a right to privileged communication where certain areas of national security were concerned, but Executive privilege may not be invoked to deny the courts access to evidence needed in a criminal proceeding. The City of New York, two hospital associations, a hospital and two health care unions, challenged the President's cancellation of a provision in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and cancellation of a provision of the Taxpayer ReliefAct of 1997Did the President's ability to selectively cancel individual portions of bills, under the Line Item Veto Act, violate the Presentment Clause of Article I? In a 6-to-3 decision William Rehnquist's Court established that by canceling only selected portions of the bills at issue the President in effect "amended" the laws before him. Such discretion, the Court concluded, violated the legislative procedures of Article I as envisioned by the Framers. In 1816, Congress chartered The Second Bank of the United States. Because the bank was not chartered by the Maryland legislature, it was subject to a Maryland state tax that applied to all banks operating without that states authority.When the Bank's Baltimore branch refused to pay the tax Maryland sued James McCulloch, cashier of the branch, for collection of the debt. Did Congress have the authority to establish the bank? May a state tax federal entities located within its jurisdiction? In a unanimous opinion (7-0) written by Chief Justice Marshall, the Court ruled that Congress had the power to incorporate the bank and that Maryland could not tax instruments of the national government employed in the execution of constitutional powers. Aaron Ogden obtained a license from to operate steam-powered ferryboats between New York and New Jersey.Thomas Gibbons made his living carrying passengers by steamboat from New Jersey to New York City. Gibbons operated under a coasting license granted by the Federal Government. Because Gibbons had no New York license, Ogden asked the New York courts to issue an injunction forbidding him landing rights to the port of New York. Gibbons appealed to the U.S. courts, arguing that his possession of a federal coasting license superseded the licensing requirements of New York State.What kinds of commerce may be regulated by the federal government under the Commerce Clause? Chief Justice Marshall delivered the opinion of a unanimous (6-0) Court siding with Gibbons."Congress' power to regulate interstate commerce does not stop at the external boundary line of each State, but may be introduced into the interior."
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