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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 TYPHUS All You Need To Know Description Typhus is a bacterial disease that is spread by lice and fleas. There are several different illnesses called "typhus". All of them are caused by one of the bacteria in the genus Rickettsiae (mainly R. typhi and R. prowazekii. There are two main types of typhus: endemic (or murine) and epidemic. Endemic (or Murine) Typhus- caused by Rickettsia typhi-commonly found in areas where hygiene is poor and the temperature is cold-sometimes called "jail fever"-bacteria that causes this disease is usually spread by rats to fleas to humans Transmission/Causes Epidemic Epidemic typhus: -caused by R. prowazekii- more severe form of typhus.- termed recrudescent or sporadic typhus. - animals, (usually rats) via lice vectors, can infect a population of of humans quickly when certain environmental conditions are present - (A milder form is Brill-Zinsser disease, which occurs when the bacteria re-activates in a person who was previously infected) From the first identification inthe United States in 1913 through the mid-1940s, >5000 cases of murine typhus were reported annually, mainly throughout the southeastern states and California. The Hawaiian islands of Maui and Oahu contain the largest concentration of infected individuals, with 74 % of cases. The disease occurs after bacteria (Rickettsia subspecies) are transferred to humans usually by vectors such as fleas or lice that have acquired the bacteria from animals such as rats, cats, opossums,and raccoons. OCCURRENCE Clinical Manifestations & Diagnosis Epidemic typhus causes fever, headache, weakness, and muscle aches. Chills, confusion, coughing, delirium, Joint pain (arthralgia), low blood pressure, a rash that begins on the chest and spreads to the rest of the body (except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet), and stupor are also symptoms of this disease.Endemic typhus causes high fever, chills, headache, and a light rash. Some other symptoms may include: Abdominal pain, backache, dull red rash that begins on the middle of the body and spreads, dry cough, joint and muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting.Brill-Zinsser disease is quite mild, resulting in about a week-long fever, and a light rash similar to that of the original illness. During World War II, typhus became evident in Jewish ghettos, where the harsh conditions were an optimum breeding ground for lice. The Nazis hired Dr. Rudolf Weigl to produce a typhus vaccine. The Vaccine: Who and How 1.Lice infected with typhus bacteria2. A few days later, the lice would be dissected individually3. Scientists would pull out the "louse gut" 4. Insert into a petri dish and mash it up with a chemical solution to make the vaccine Christine Viguilla Prd 3
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