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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 THE FORMATION OF ISRAEL The Jews were forced out of Palestine and settled throughout different countries, or Diaspora. However a group of Jews known as Zionists, those who favored a Jewish national homeland in Palestine, began to return. Jews wanted their own nation in the territory but the Palestinians strongly opposed. British Foreign Secretary Sir Arthur Balfour wrote a letter to Zionist leaders, promoting the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine while protecting the non-Jewish existing communities. The UN decided to make Palestine into a Palestinian state and Jewish state. On May 14, 1948, David Ben Gurion announced the creation of Israel THE ARAB-ISRAELI WARS Six Islamic states invaded Israel and war broke out. As a result, the state of Palestine never came to being because Israel seized half the land. 2. 1956 Suez CrisisEgypt seized control of the Suez Canal under President Gamal Abdel Nasser. The outraged British made an agreement with France and Israel to take back the canal. However, the U.S. and the Soviet a Union forced them to withdraw. 1. First Arab-Israeli WarSix Islamic states invaded Israel but, under US support, Israel won. 3. Six Day WarNasser and Arab allies, under Soviet support, moved to close the Gulf of Aqaba, Israel's outlet to the Red Sea. Israelis struck their airfields and attacked on three fronts. They gained control of Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, and the West Bank. 4. Yom KippurNasser's successor, Anwar Sadat, planned a joint Arab attack on the holiest of Jew holidays. They recaptured some lost territory before the Israelis, under a Prime Minister Golda Meir, retained most of the territory. They called a truce. The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) pushed for the formation of a Palestinian state. Once an umbrella organization made up of different groups, the guerrilla fighters dominated and insisted that the only way to achieve their goal was through armed struggle. Yasir Arafat became chairman and carried out attacks on Israel. Anwar Sadat extended a hand to the Knesset, the Israeli parliament, and asked for peace. In exchange, Israel would have to recognize Palestinian rights and withdraw from seized territory in 1967. Carter invited Sadat and Menachem Begin, Israeli's prime minister, to Camp David where they signed the Camp David Accords: Egypt recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israel agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula. Sadat was assasinated but the next leader, Hosni Mubarak, worked to maintain peace. The Palestinians continued to clash with the Israelis and began a widespread campaign of civil disobedience called intifada, or uprising. The Oslo Peace Accords, documents also known as the Declaration of Principles, were signed in Oslo, Norway. Israel's Prime Minister, Yitzhak Rabin agreed to grant Palestinians self rule in the Gaza Strip and West Bank. He signed it with Arafat. However, Rabin was assassinated. His successor, Benjamin Netanyahu, tried his best. Ehud Barak, Israeli Prime Minister, and Arafat met at Camp David but could not reach a compromise. A second intifada was launched after an Israeli political leader, Ariel Sharon, visited a Jewish holy place. Palestinians used suicide bombers and, to combat them, Israeli forces destroyed Palestine bongs and calls. They even bombed Arafat's HQ. Israel Arab Countries vs
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