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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 THIRD WORLD (developing nations not aligned with either superpower) They were economically poor and politically unstable. They also suffered from ethnic conflicts and lack of technology and education. COLD WAR STRATEGIES: The US, the Soviet Union, and sometimes China backed wars of revolution, liberation, or counterrevolution. The CIA and KGB (US and Soviet Intelligence Agencies) engaged in covert actives. The U.S. gave aid through military, education, combating poverty, and volunteer workers. The Soviets offered military and technical aid. Some third world countries, however, chose to stay neutral. Indonesia hosted many neutral country leaders at the Bandung Conference and formed the "third force" of independent countries, or nonaligned nations. LATIN AMERICA Cuba: Fulgencio Batista (US Support) was an unpopular dictator that was resented. Therefore, after a popular revolution, he was overthrown. Fidel Castro, the leader of the revolution, brought social reforms to Cuba but soon became too controlling. He took over US owned sugar mills, which led to Eisenhower ordering an embargo on all trade with Cuba. Cuba turned to the Soviet Union. Anti-Castro Cuban exiles trained by the CIA invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs but lost, humiliatingly. The Cuban Missile Crisis- Nikita Khrushchev was convinced that the U.S. would not resist Soviet expansion and began building missile sites. When President John F. Kennedy found out, he demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade between Cuba and the Soviet's. Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if it meant the U.S. would not invade Cuba. Soviet's backed up Cuba until their fall. Nicaragua: US SUPPORTED: Anastasio Somoza, a dictator, though his son was toppled by the Sadinistas and their leader Daniel Ortega, who was funded by both the U.S. and USSR. Ortega gave assistance to Marxist rebels in El Salvador. The U.S. supported Nicaraguan anti-communist forces called the Contras (contrarevolucionarios) to fight the rebels. 1990- President Ortega agreed to hold free elections and was defeated by Violeta Chamorro, a reform candidate. THE COLD WAR THAWS Stalin's death= Nikita Khrushchev became the dominant Soviet leader. He denounced Stalin and began destabilization, purging the country of Stalin's memory. The satellite countries protested against Communism; for example. In Hungary, a liberal Hungarian Communist leader, Imre Nagy, demanded Soviet troops to leave after promising free elections. In response, Soviet's invaded Hungary and Nagy was executed. Czechoslovakia- After the Cuban Missile Crisis, Khrushchev lost prestige and was replaced with Leonid Brezhnev, who limited basic human rights. He did not tolerate dissent in Eastern Europe and when Czech Communist leader Alexander Dubcek loosened controls on censorship, which created a period of reform called Prague Spring, the Warsaw Pact nations invaded Czechoslovakia. Brezhnev justified this by using the Brezhnev Doctrine, stating that the USSR had the right to prevent its satellites from rejecting Communism. Because of the growing threat of nuclear war, President Richard M. Nixon practiced a policy of détente which would lessen Cold War tensions. This came from a philosophy known as realpolitik, or "real politics". The two superpowers agreed to pursue détente. China and the Soviet Union also split, arguing over who would lead Communism worldwide. Khrushchev punished the Chinese by refusing the share nuclear secrets and ended technical economic aid a year later. Nixon visited Communist China and negotiated. He also visited the Soviet Union. After a series of meetings called the Strategic Arms Limitation (SALT) Nixon and Brezhnev signed SALT I, limiting the number of missiles each countries could have. Détente began to collapse after SALT ll was signed under Carter. The Soviet's invaded Afghanistan and China and India began building nuclear arsenals. Therefore, Ronald Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) that would protect against enemy missiles. MIDDLE EAST (Iran) Iran's leader, supported by the U.S., Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi embraced Western governments and oil companies. Iranian nationalist resented this and, uniting under Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq, nationalized a British owned oil company, forcing the Shah to flee. The US helped the shah return to power Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, a religious leader of the conservative Muslim leaders (ayatollahs) opposed Western influences and rallied the poor Iranians. The shah fled once more. Khomeini was a strict ruler who hated the United States. With the ayatollah's blessing young Islamic revolutionaries took Americans hostage and demanded the U.S. to force the shah to face trial. This became known as the Iranian Hostage a Crisis. Khomeini also encouraged Muslim radicals to overthrow secular governments and clashed with Saddam Hussein, a military leader who governed Iraq as a secular state. The superpowers also faced off in Afghanistan when the Soviet's invaded when the Communist government began to topple. However, the Soviet's were stuck and the Afghan holy warriors under US support, mujahideen attacked. They did this because Carter wanted oil and warned the Soviets against any attempt to gain control of Persian Gulf. He stopped US grain shipments and boycotted the Moscow Olympics. Mikhail Gorbachev, a Soviet president, withdrew.
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