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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 REPUBLIC OF CHINA (U.S. SUPPORTED) v.s. PEOPLE's REPUBLIC OF CHINA (S.U. SUPPORTED) Nationalists, under Jiang Jieshi, lose the Civil War because of lack of popular support. Jiang's army fled to the island of Taiwan (Formosa). The U.S. helped set up a a government. The Communists, under Mao Zedong, won the peasant's loyalty by promoting literacy and improving food production. They were also eager to return their land. They also signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union. The SU gave aid to Communist China and pledged to come to each other's defense if attacked. Communist China expanded. For example, they attacked Tibet and promised autonomy to the Tibetans, who lived under the religious leader, Dali Lama. However, when control tightened, the Dali Lama fled to India. India took in many Tibetan refugees after a failed revolt in Tibet and resented China. -They claim a new Mandate of Heaven. MAO ZEDONG'S BRAND OF MARXIST SOCIALISM Agrarian Reform Law of 1950: Mao seized the land from the landlords and killed those who resisted. He divided the land among the peasants and later forced them to join collective farms. Private companies were nationalized and Mao launched a five-year plan that set high production goals. "Great Leap Forward" (early 1958)Peasants lived in communes where they lived equally. They owned nothing and had no incentive to work hard. Therefore, the program failed because of crop failure and a famine that killed millions. The Soviet Union and China began to drift apart; they both sought to lead the worldwide Communist movement and they often faced territorial disputes. AS A RESULT Other leaders moved away from strict Socialist ideas; they allowed farmers to live in their own homes and could sell their own crops. Factory workers could also compete. THE RED GUARDS AND THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION The young Chinese students rallied after Mao urged revolution, forming a militia unit called Red Guards. The Cultural Revolution began to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal. The Red Guards, who believed the life of the mind was dangerous, closed schools and targeted resisters. Finally, Mao ordered to put down the Red Guards. KOREAN WAR 38th Parallel- divided North (SU Supported) and South (US Supported) Korea When North Korea attacked South Korea, South Korea asked the UN for help. The Soviet Union was absent and, therefore, 15 nations participated under the command of Douglas MacArthur. Douglas MacArthur launched a surprise attack against North Korea at Inchon, pushing them out of South Korea and to the Yalu River, the Chinese border. The Chinese felt threatened and joined the North. Douglas MacArthur suggested a nuclear attack on China but Truman vetoed the idea. MacArthur was removed when he tried to go behind Truman's back. Two years later, UN forces and North Korea signed a cease-fire agreement. Still, Korea remains divided with a demilitarized zone between them. Kim Il Sung, North Korea's leader, established a Communist rule. His son, Kim Jong Il, developed nuclear weapons. South Korea, on the other hand, prospered. VIETNAM WAR Under French rule, Ho Chi Minh, a young Nationalist, formed Ho's Indochinese Communist party led revolts against the death. Hoh was sentenced to death but fled. He returned when the Japanese seized control of the country. Ho and other nationalists formed the Vietminh Independence League and forced the Japanese out of Vietnam. France regained power. France held the major cities but The Vietminh, holding popular support in the countryside, used hit-and-run tactics. The French surrendered after the defeat at Dien Bien Phu. The U.S. and France set up an anti-Communist government under the leadership of Ngo Dinh Diem after an international peace conference met in Geneva and came to the decision to divide Vietnam at the 17 degree north latitude. However, Diem was a dictator. The Vietcong, Communist guerrillas, began gaining strength in the south and Diem was eventually assassinated. Under President Lyndon Johnson, the U.S. joined the fight after North Vietnamese boats attacked two U.S. destroyers at the Gulf of Tonkin. The U.S. bombed north Vietnam, which only fueled their hate for South Vietnam. The U.S. finally withdrew. President Richard Nixon formed a plan: Vietnamization. It allowed US troops to gradually pull out while the South Vietnamese increased their combatrole. Nixon authorized a massive bombingcampaign against North Vietnamese bases and supply routes. President Eisenhower described the threat as the domino theory- Southeast Asian nations were like a row of dominos; the fall of one to communism = fall of its neighbors. Khmer Rouge (Communist rebels)- set up a brutal Communist government under the leadership of Pol Pot. The Vietnamese invaded and overthrew the Khmer. Cambodia adopted a democratic constitution.
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