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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Chapter 7 : DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS Most words mean what they mean regardless of who uses them and when and where they are used. this lead us to the definition of DEICTICWORD speaker, addressee, time and place) This is exactly why words are so useful. is one whichtakes some elementof its meaning fromthe context or situation (i.e. of the utterance inwhich it is used. the first person singular pronoun i this deictic. when Ahmad says 'I've lost the book. the word I here refers to Ahmad . when Sami says 'I'll send you another one. the I here refers to Sami . comment: all of our examples of deictic terms have been referring expressions, like (you, here, today) ormodifiers which can be use with referring expressionslike the demonstrative this. there are also few predicates which have a deictic ingredient. the verb come has a deictic ingredient, because it contains the notion ' toward the speaker '. for example : there are in English and other languages tenses for indicating past, present and future time also be regarded by reference to the time of utterance. In reported speech, deictic terms occurring in the original utterance (the utterance being reported) may be translated into other, possibly non-deictic, terms in order to preserve the original reference. comment: for example : Sara : 'I'll meet you here tomorrow. Nora : (reporting Sara's utterance some time later ) : ' Sara said she would meet me there the next day ' In this example, five adjustments are made in the reported speech, namely: I-she , will- would , you-me , here-there , tomorrow- the next day. She was absent for the meeting . for example some examples involve a 'psychological shifting' of the speaker's view-point for the purpose of interpreting one of the deictic terms. In our definition of deixis 'time and place' of utterance must be taken very flexiblyor very broadly or very narrowly and strictly . for example for your information: the word (deixis) is from a Greek word meaning (pointing). part1
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