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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Oceania and the Americas Total Land Area Civilizations in Oceania and the Americas both developed independently from the rest of the world. However, several large empires emerged in the Americas while civilizations in Oceania stayed small due to a limited land area spread out across many islands. Americas: 16.4 million sq. milesOceania: 3.292 million sq. miles Political Developments The Incas and the Papua New Guineans both were isolated from Eurasian civilizations until the 16th century. They Differed in that the Incas were conquered and had their land taken by the Spanish, while Papua New Guinea was mostly left alone. American and Oceanic economies were both centered aroundtrading and bartering, with little to no use of currency until the arrival of Eurasians. The people in the Americas tradedby land, while the people of Oceania mostly traded by sea(from island to island). The Incas and Papua New Guinea Economic Development Where economics are concerned, both the Incas and Papua New Guineans lacked a merchant class and trade was on a smaller scale. As opposed to Papua New Guinea, however, the Incas (or whatremained of them) were brought into the global trade after meeting the European explorers. Social Limitations Oceania and the Americas both shared limitations that leftthem behind of Europe and Asia. The two regions did not have an extremely fertile place like Mesopotamia to kick start an agricultural society, or access to high-yielding cereal grains. They also had to do without domestic animalsto provide more muscle power and food. However, difference in geography left these two regions in opposing places by the time they were discovered by the Europeans. People in the Americas had been able to overcome many of the natural limitations, and severallarge and complex empires sprung up. In Oceania theuse of agriculture proved inefficient, and the people choseto remain in primarily hunter-gatherer societies. Jack Ray Block 1
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