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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Website The Monster Study Experiment Psychologists Wendell Johnson & Mary Tudor 1939 Hypothesis 22 orphan childrenAge 5-15 Univeristy Of Iowa When Where Participants "Stuttering begins in the ear of the listener, not in the mouth of the child" (W. Johnson) Results -Normal speakers in the experimental group reacted immediately when they were made conscious of their speech - Tudor and Johnson chose 22 orphans at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home- Separated into two groups: 10 Stutters and 12 Non-stutters -1/2 of the children from each group would be separated into a control and experimental group - The control group would be labeled as normal speakers and would receive positive therapy -The experiential group would be labeled as stutters and would receive negative therapy-Positive therapy consisted of positive feedback on the participant's speech such as saying their speech was fine-Negative therapy consisted of negative feedback on the participant's speech such as correcting their speech and asking to stop repetitions of words- In the experimental group, Tudor defined stuttering to the children and during the course of the study warned them that they were showing symptoms of stuttering. From then, she would draw attention to their "faulty" speech, stopping and lecturing them when repeating a word- The teachers and matrons of the orphanage were instructed to reinforced this negative label - Also tested for correlation between speech interruptions and dominate hand - The speech of the normal speakers in the experimental group deceased significantly -In total, speech has deteriorated in for 5 of the 6 normal speakers and 3 of the 5 stutters in the experimental group - The control group had only one child whose speech suffered at the end of the experiment Ethics -Use of orphans -Under the assumption the study was to receive speech therapy -No correlation between dominate hand and speech interruptions - The children talked less, were more self-conscious of their speech, and demonstrated behavior typical of stutter - Did not publish results - Not a good sample of general population - Children past the age of normal stutters potential to comprise results -Normal speaking children developed life long behavior of speech interruptions Conclusion Researchers and other psychiatrists are mixed about the data - Issue of consent -Risks were not made known to participatns However, those in the negative speech experiential showed a loss of self- esteem and similar behaviors seen in adult stutterers Sources Reynolds, G. (2003, March 15).The Stuttering Doctor's 'Monster Study' Retrieved January 6, 2015, from src=pm&pagewanted=1 Dyer, J. (2001, June 10). Ethics and Orphans: The `Monster Study' Retrieved January 6, 2015, from 'Monster Study' Still Stings. (2003, August 6). Retrieved January 6, 2015, from
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