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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 What does it mean (word)? Lexicology is the study of words Lexicology 1- The Orthographic word It is one which has a space on either side of it.e.g. she studying every day . = 4 orthographic word 2- A morphological It is a unique form. It considers form only and not meaning.e.g Dog and Dogs are 2 words and different forms 3- A lexical Word comprehends the various forms of items which are closely related by meaning. e.g. take, takes,taken,took = they are different forms but only one lexical word. Word-information. Word-formationWe can very quickly understand a new word on our language ( a neologism) and accept the use of different forms of it. Etymology The study of the origin and history of a word . A lot of words in daily use today were , at one time, considered barbaric misuses of language. e.g, Handbook Coinage The invention of totally new terms.Older examples are aspirin , nylon, Vaseline .They tend to become every day words in the language 'google' originally a misspelling for the word googol EponymsNew words based on the name of a person or place. e.g. 'jeans' ( from the Italian city of Genoa where the type of cloth was first made) 'Fahrenheit' (from the German, Gabriel Fahrenheit) taking over of words from other languages. e.g. Borrowing terms from English as in the arabic use كاتشب (Ketchup)In some cases, the borrowed words may be used with quite different meaning .Special type of borrowing is described as loan-translation or calque which is a direct translation of the elements of a word into the borrowing language. Borrowing BlendingThe combination of two separate forms to product a single new term by taking only the beginning of join one word and joining it to the end of the other e.g. work + alcoholic = workaholic CompoundingDefinition: Joining of two separate words to produce a single form.e.g.bus stop HypocorismsA particular type of reduction, favored in Australian and British English, where a longerword is reduced to a single syllable,than y or ie e.g.Pregnant / Preggie ClippingA word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form usually beginning in casual speech.e.g. situation comedy sitcom AcronymsNew words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words.CALL = Computer Assisted Language Learning حركة المقاومة الإسلامية= حماس Backformation A word of one type ( usually a noun ) is reducedto form a word of another type (usually a verb)e.g.Babysit ( from babysitter ) Conversion:A change in the function of a word .e.g. conversion noun to verb email to emaile.g.conversion verb to noun feel feel Derivation:It is the formation of a new word or inflectablestem from another word or stem. It typically occurs by the addition of an affix. Multiple processesThe operation of more than one process at work in the creation of a particular word.e.g.Carphone phone(clipping) from telephone it is combined with car (compounding) Prefixes: Is add to the beginning of the word. (healthy unhealthy) Suffixes:Is add to the end of the word.ness (slow slowness) Infixes: It is an affix that is incorporated inside another word .e.g. جهد إجتهاد Done by:Sara AlshehriNoura Almuteri Rawan AlQarni Aseel AlmrzogGhadah Al-rehaili Refrence ..English Club." Plural Forms of Compound Nouns"., n.d Web.Kosur, Heather." Word Formation: Compounding, Clipping, and Blending," Bright Hub Education ( 17 October, 2014). 'Wikipedia."Derivation(linguistics). Attribution-ShareAlike License ,n.d.Web. 18 Oct2014Mariekosur,Heather."wordformation."12october2013:Bright Hub Education.Web.13Nov1014. "Wikipedia." Morphology (linguistics). ,n.d.Web. 5 Oct.2014 4- A semantic Word involves distinguishing between items which may be morphologically identical but differ in meaning. e.g. 'bank' and' bank" each one has own meaning. Multiple processes:The operation of more than one process at work in the creation of a particular word.e.g.Carphone phone(clipping) from telephone it is combined with car (compounding)
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