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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Linguistic school in the twentieth century القواعد النحوية grammatical model of language هو القصد, وعلم يبحث فيه عن أحوال أواخر الكلم اعرابا وبناء معرفة صواب الكلام من خطئه ليحترز به عن الخطأ في اللسان An attempt to represent systematicallyand overtly what nativespeakers of that language intuitively know 1 Traditional Latineinfluenced models Traditional Latine-influenced models WHY? * Latine was the language of the religion.* English is a part of indo-Europeanfamilies of languages that Latine belongs to. a system of rules that relates patterened soundsto predictable meaning and which reflectsa speaker's abilityto "make infinite use of finite means" Model prescriptive rules about the structure of languagethat is taught in shcool based based Thefeatures 1- all languages are fundamentally similar.2- language is *flexible, *complex Differences between the languages genitivelord's (singular)lords' (plural) dativeto the lord (singular)to the lords (plural) It has FAILED 2 on the Latine grammar Structuralis m Structuralis m developed in U S because they didn't recognise thateach language is unique in its organisation and patterns is a theoretical paradigm sociology, anthropology, linguistics and semiotics positingthat elements of human culture must be understoodin terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure Structuralism originated in the early 1900s,in the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure and the subsequent Prague,Moscow and Copenhagen schools of linguistics Structuralism had one of its clearest statment inLeonard Bloomfield's language, published in 1933 if native speakers used a structure regulary then it was correct.language is about the structure not meanings combine phoneme and morphemetree + /z/ treeshorse + /iz/ horses 3 Case grammars Case grammars focusing on the link betweenthe valence, or numberof subjects, objects, etc.,of a verb and thegrammatical context it requires Latin VS. the relationships show upin surface structure as case endings may be indicated bysentence positionand the use of prepositions English 8 cases are sufficient to accountfor relationships between noun and verbs cases are sufficient to accountfor relationships between noun and verbs مثال لحالة نحوية في اللغة العربية زار محمد خالدا الفاعل:محمد، المفعول به: خالد (و الجملة هنا واضحة وتنطق في أغلب لغات العالم بهذا الترتيب) نشأ النحو كعلم يُدَرَّس بعد قيام أبو الأسود الدؤلي بجمع القرآن وتشكيلة م مدار النحو من مدارس النحو المدرسة البصرية المدرسة الكوفيه من علماء النحو References سيبويه - الخليل بن احمد - ابن منظور زار خالدا محمد. أيضا (الفاعل:محمد، المفعول به: خالد) (عرفنا عن طريق الضملأن الفاعل دائما مرفوع- وإعرابها هنا فاعل مؤخر مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة الظاهرة على آخره 1) Agentive: Mary made a dress.2)Experience: John was warmed by the fire.3)Instrumental: the stone broke the window.4)Objective: smoke filled the air.5)Source: he drove from Leeds to London.6)Goal: she wrote a song.7)Locative: the flat was very comfortable.8)Temporal: lectures end on Thursday. Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman UniversityCollage of language and translationENGL 361 Introduction to linguistics Done by :Ebtehal Alsheddi, Hetaf Alhowairieni and Layla AlmouhaisenMs. Rehan Almegren.6E1
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