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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Volcanoes How do volcanoes form ? Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth's upper mantle works its way to the surface. At the surface, it erupts to form lava flows and ash deposits. Over time as the volcano continues to erupt, it will get bigger and bigger. How do volcanoes affect people and the environment ? Fast-moving lava can kill people and falling ash can make it hard for them to breathe.They can also die from famine, fires and earthquakes which can be related to volcanoes.People can lose their possessions as volcanoes can destroy houses, roads and fields. 20 facts about volcanoes 1.The danger area around a volcano covers about a 20-mile radius. 2.Fresh volcanic ash, made of pulverized rock, can be harsh, acidic, gritty, glassy and smelly.The ash can cause damage to the lungs of older people, babies and people with respiratory problems. 3.Volcanic lightning occurs mostly within the cloud of ash during an eruption, and is created by the friction of the ash rushing to the surface.Roughly 200 accounts of this lightning have been witnessed live. 4. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mud flows and rockfalls. 5.More than 80% of the earth's surface is volcanic in origin. The sea floor and some mountains were formed by countless volcanic eruptions.Gaseous emissions from volcano formed the earth's atmosphere. 6.There are more than 500 active volcanoes in the world.More than half of these volcanoes are part of the "Ring of Fire," a region that encircles the Pacific Ocean. 7. Active volcanoes in the U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Oregon and Washington but the greatest chance of eruptions near areas where many people live is in Hawaii and Alaska. 8.The sound of an eruption volcano can be quiet and hissing or explosive and booming.The loud cracks travel hundreds of miles and do the most damage, including hearing loss and broken glass. 9.The most deadly eruptions have occurred in Indonesia, with tens of thousands of lives lost to starvation tsunami (as a result of the eruption), ash flows, and mud flows. 10.The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan. 11.While most volcanoes form near tectonic boundaries, they can also form in areas that contain abnormally hot rock inside the Earth Known as mantle plumes, these hotsppots are found at a number of locations around the globe with the most notable being in Hawaii 12.Some famous volcanic eruptions of modern times include Mount Krakatoa in 1883,Novarupta in 1912, Mount St Helens in 1980 and Mt Pinatubo in 1991. 13.Volcanic eruptions can send ash high into the air, over 30km (17 miles) above the Earths surface. 14.Large volcanic eruptions can reflect radiation from the Sun and drop average temperatures on Earth by around half a degree.There have been several examples of this over the last century. 15.Common volcanic gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen sulfide. 16.Volcanoes are usually located where tectonic plates meet.This is especially true for the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area around the Pacific Ocean where over 75% of the volcanoes on Earth are found. 17.Pumice is a unique volcanic rock that can float in water. It can also be used as an abrasive and is sometimes used in beauty salons for removing dry skin. 18.There are also volcanoes found on the ocean floor and even under icecaps, such as those found in Iceland 19.The object with the most volcanic activity in our solar system is Io, one of Jupiters moons.Covered in volcanoes, its surface is constantly changing to the large amount of volcanic activity 20.Most people think of volcanoes as large cone shaped mountains but that is just one type,others feature wide plateaus, fissure vents (cracks were lava emerges) and bulging dome shapes By: Mahmoud
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