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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Loss of territories - productive land,industries and raw resources 9 C FREQUENCY ANALYSIS 1920s ENIGMAMACHINE Frequency analysis was used by Britains code breakers for enciphering and deciphering secret messages during World War II. It was invented by Arthur Scherbius, the German engineer at the end of World War I. It has been claimed that as a result of the information gained through this device, hostilities between Germany and the Allied forces were curtailed by two years. Before and during World War II, Enigma has been the inspiration for many other designs of rotor cipher machines, such as British Typex and the American Sigaba. Enigma machine is the study of the frequency of letters or groups of letters in a ciphertext that is useful in cryptanalysis. The method is used as an aid to break classical ciphers such as Caesar Cipher and other substitution ciphers. In substitution ciphers, each plaintext letter is encoded to the same cipher letter or symbol. To start deciphering the encryption, it is useful to get a frequency count of all the letters in ciphertext. The most frequent letter may represent the most common letter in English which is E followed by T, A, O and I whereas the least frequent are Q, Z and X. This method was first documented by an Arabic mathematician Abu al-Kindi. frequencies of English letters in text by : Liyana Chew Binti Nizam Chew Isma Norshahila Mohd Shah Cryptography Development Department email: (ext6920)
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