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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 How to analyse a digital product? WEB ANALYTICS Web analytics is the practice of measuring, collecting, analysing and reporting on Internet data for the purposes of understanding how a web site is used by its audience and how to optimize its usage. Objectives The main objective is to track or analyse users navigation in order to: - Rationalize the investment in online marketing or public relation.- Identify markets characteristics and consumers profile.- Optimize the interactive channel. Data collection All this digital data is collected by cookies, log files and javascript code generated by the web servers. The main sources are the server logs, the visitors data, the search engine data and the defined conversion funnels. - Page impression.- Unique Visitant.- Visit. - Conversation rate.- Bounce rate.- Average cost per visit. Generic indicators: Some basic metrics: On the one hand, you can analyse the traffic and the page views to understand your users and provide relevant content -or personalised advertising-. On the other, tracking users navigations is not easy at all. In addition, taking into account just quantitative data may make you miss someinteresting qualitative information. Tools We can find some professional analytic tools as WebTrends Log Analyzer -in the1990s- or the well-known and, today, most popular one Google Analytics. BIG DATA Big data analytics refers to the strategy of analyzing largevolumes of data. This big data is gathered from a wide variety of sources, including social networks, videos,digital images, sensors, and sales transaction records. Objectives The main objective of Big Data is to make behavioral predictions through thediscovery of hidden patterns and correlations in sets of data. Data collection Therere some different sources which let researchers collect the mentioned data. Some of them would be:- Generated by people Street surveys, tweeting, emailing.- Data transaction Calls, bank transfers, online purchasing.- E-marketing and web Content generated by users, navigation tracking.- Machine to machine Devices that turn physical magnitudes into data such as thermometers, GPS, sensors- Biometrics Mainly used by security companies and the defense and intelligence of governments. The techniques used when analyzing bid data are the association, the datamining, the clustering and the text analytics. - Space for big quantities of information.- Real-time (instantaneousinformation). - Unkown quality of the representativity.- Affects privacy. A measure of the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of user experience with the interfaces. Objectives The main objective of Usability is to improve the user's experience. Data collection - Analyse the efficiency of the system.- Prevent and detect errors.- Study how the users understand the structure (cognitive processes). Analytical methodology - Analyse the content design.- Adaption to user's scanner-reading:legibility, speed, clarity and hypertext.- Respect the basic design standards.- Know user's design preferences. Design methodology Technics - Eye tracking.- Task analysis- Application of 10 Usability Heuristics for user Interface Design (Nielsen). - We get information about real users behaviour.- Gain competitive advantages.- Usability studies are proven to save on development and redesignefforts. - Its narrative dimension.- Testing is not 100% representative of the real life scenario. Example Google respects the principles of usability (simplicity, quickness, etc.), promoting an interactive experience that fully satisfies the needs of the user.Here we have the difference between Google and other search engines (Yahoo, etc.), which appear as something more complex to understand. Its important to talk about SEM and SEO as techniquesto analyse the web trends in order to build effective online marketing campaigns. - The Search Engine Marketing (SEM) basically cares about businesses presence on the browsers. The main objectiveof SEM is that, those clients which are looking for products or services related to the organization, find out the organizations web site. This kind of marketing takes into account the organic space and the paid one. - The search engine optimization (SEO), however, is used to improve the organizations position at the organic ranking. Thanks to some tools Adwords would be an example- analysing the web trends becomes, today, easy and available for a lot of businesses. SEO SEM vs. ETHNOGRAPHY Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures. This method consists in observe the culturalpractices of social groups and participate in them, in order to contrast what people say and what they do. Objectives The objective of qualitative studies in this area is to show how social life is organized from the interaction and computer-mediated communication. Data collection Ethnography includes direct field observations, participant-observation, focus groups and interviews. These techniques consist on detailed descriptions of situations, events, people interactions and behaviors that are observable. It incorporates what participants say, their experiences, attitudes, beliefs... - It provides rich data about social life.- It's helpful to understand why certain people act in a certain way.- We can learn more about the social processes that overlap with the study.- It's a flexibile method, which allows the researcher to adapt to unexpected circumstances during the study. - It only can be applied in small groups or communities.- It depends on the researcher's ability to gain the trust of the individuals he wants to study.- The researcher can almost become a "member"of the group, losing the perspective that an exterior observer has. Some authors consider Ethnography as a branch of social or cultural anthropology. In the beginnings, this method was used to analyze Aboriginal communities. Peculiarities USABILITY SEMIOTICS Semiotics is a theory of sense production and interpretation. It studies how objects (texts) arrive at processes (production and interpretation). It also analyse the ambiguous game between signification and interpretation played between designers and users, respectively. Objectives The main objective of semiotics is to understand the interpretation process followed by the user when scanning any digital text. Data collection Semiotic has four levels of analysis:- Plastic level Shape, colours, distribution of the information- Figurative level Icons, photos, videos, sound It tries to find the relation between these elements. Its unique for every user.- Communicative level Instructions of the interface affordances let us know how to move in the interface.- Meta-communicative level Only analysed in special interpretative situations (face to face communication via online). - Saving of time; it eliminates unnecesary motions.- It's more credible than any quantitative method: theresless error in understanding and observing (qualitative) than in statistical research (quantitative).- Let us measure users satisfaction or rejection. - Plastic level sometimes could be different between interfaces; that means confusion in the understanding of the users. From Greimas to online interfaces From Subject to User.From Object to What the subject is searching for in Internet.From Helpers to Searching engines, icons, online support, etc.From Opponents to Slow downloads, badly designed interfaces, etc. This method is also linked to Usability because, thanks to Greimas theory, we can know if the user is satisfied or frustrated while using an specific interface. - Ardèvol, E., Bertrán, M., Callén, B., & Pérez, C. (2003) Etnografía virtualizada: la observación participante y la entrevista semiestructurada en línea en Athenea Digital, 3. URL: Livingstone, S. (2004) The Challenge of Changing Audiencies. Or, what is the Audience Researcher to do in the Age of the Internet?”. New Media y Society (8)3, pp. 355378.- Scolari, C. A. (2009) The sense of the interface: applying Semiotics to HCI research, Semiotica, Vol. 177, pp. 1 27.- Sanagustin, E. (2009) Del 1.0 al 2.0: Claves para entender el nuevo marketing. eBook de acceso gratuito Versión 1.0. Marzo 2009. URL: Bibliography Júlia Bahí, Ignasi Bosch, Sheila Carro, Alba Colino, Maria Esteve and Sílvia Gutiérrez. Analysis of Interactive Media Messages
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