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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The Road to Independence MAY 1898 APR 1898 AGUINALDO AMERICAN NEGOTIATIONS IN SINGAPORE JUN 1898 JUN 1898 AGUINALDO RETURNS TO THE PHILIPPINES ARRIVAL OF GENERAL ANDERSON MOCK BATTLE OF MANILA MALOLOS CONGRESS Aguinaldo established a dictatorial revolutionary government in Cavite and incited rebellions in some provinces against the Spanish. Because it served the purpose of the Americans to clear out the path between Cavite and Manila, Dewey gave arms recovered from captive Spanish ships in return for the payment from Aguinaldo. Verbal agreements on the American aid and provision of arms to the Philippines had been accepted by Aguinaldo because he wanted to carry this relations himself as the leader of the revolutionaries. In his haste, he overlooked the fact thatthe Americans avoided to sign a formal contract which could have safeguarded the interests of the Philippines in the economic expansion plans of America. Even though the invited American representatives didn't attend the events, the revolutionary government prematurely announced the Philippine independence under the protection of the American government in order to raise morale of the rebels against Spain. PROCLAMATION OF INDEPENDENCE After the Proclamation, Aguinaldo and the congress wanted to write a constitution in order to be recognized as anindependent nation. Mabini was highly against it since the congress shouldn't have legislative power in a dictatorial government. In the end, its creation had been delayed too long for it to have served it main purpose after the Treaty of Paris. WRITING OF THE CONSTITUTION Under the plans of Admiral Dewey, the Filipinos cut off Manila's access to external resources for 2.5 months. This weakened the central Spanish forces in Manila that it paved the victory of Dewey and its new troops when it entered and took that city. The Filipinos weren't allowed in the actual siege since both Aguinaldo and Dewey predicted that the Filipinos might massacre the Spanish forces inside. General Anderson arrived in the Philippines bringing with him soldiers to support the upcoming battle against the Spaniards in the Philippines. Anderson started to communicate with Aguinaldo requesting for the latter's cooperation in military efforts. Although pleasantries and words were exchanged charged with implications, no formal agreements were made on both sides. According to Lt. X, it was on August 4 when American movementsto prevent Filipino troops from entering Manila began. The Filipino troops wereforced to surrender Paco with no consultation or explanation. Furthermore, Dewey explicitly told Aguinaldo to prevent his troops from moving towards Manila without the consent of an American commander. AMERICANS BANNING FILIPINO TROOPS IN MANILA The Malolos Congress convened. It was a widely represented congress, filled with representatives around the Phlippines. However, the vast majority were "elites" -- the educated class of thePhilippines, with very few exceptions. Although it was tasked to write the constitution, this was Aguinaldo's way to show the world that the Phlippines wascivilized and had no need for help. AUG 1898 AUG 1898 SEPT 1898 SEPT 1898
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