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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Family Interaction The first assumption offamily systems theoryis family characteristicsare inputs into the system.The system that respondsto the inputs and theinteractions that takesplace are the outputs. The second assumptionof family system theory isthat the system is a whole,must be understood as awhole, and cannot beunderstood through only oneor more of its parts, namely,its members. The third and final assumptionthat is made in family systemstheory is that boundaries existbetween family members andsubsystems, resulting fromthe interaction of family memberswith each other and from theinteractions of the family unitwith outside influences. The theory focuses on what happensto the input (family characteristics)through the process (family interaction)that creates the output (family functions)(Figure 2.) Understanding the child with a disabilitydoes not mean that you will understandthe family. However, understanding thefamily is a necessity for understanding agreat deal about the child. All families vary in the degree in whichtheir boundaries are open or closed toeducators or other nonmembers. Thedegree of openness of a family affectshow much a family wants to collaboratewith an educator or others outside ofthe family. The boundaries within the family also decide the family members roles. (i.e. extended family, parental,grandparents,) All of this relating to operating rules of family systems and subsystems, which iscohesion and adaptability. Cohesion and Adaptability * Cohesion- the emotional bonding that members of family subsystems have* Adaptability- the quality and nature of boundaries, organization, and negotiations among family subsystems Family interactions are unique and are influenced by culture. Range of Cohesion Implications of Cohesion Ranges of Adaptability Implications of Adaptability Input/Output Wholeness and Subsystems Boundaries *Self-determination or interdependence be cautious as to the preference of the family while negotiating the degree of student decision making *Person who has primary control over family decisions and rules work with families to make options consistent with cultural values and goals * Low Degree (disengaged)-- isolated from family members,limited interactions, no support, and no assistance* Often occurs when the members of the extended familycannot accept the child * Balanced cohesion -- positive outcomes* Low family cohesion -- stress at transition pointsand parent-child stress -Create content thatsupports the families- Provide appropriateservices and supports * Help families plan for positive changes (gradual transitions)* Encourage families to examine alternatives* Offer services through the school(counselor, social worker, or community professionals)
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