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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 FALLICIES OF ARGUMENT FALLICIES OF EMOTIONAL ARGUMENT FALLICIES OF ETHICAL ARGUMENT FALLICIES OF LOGICAL ARGUMENT You'll encounter a problem in any argument when the claims, warrants, or proofs in it are invalid, insufficient, or disconnected. In therory, such problems seem easy enough to spot, but in practice, they can be camouflaged by a skillful use of words or images. A hasty generalization is an inference drawn from insuffcient evidence because omy honda broke down, then all hondas must be junk. It forms the basis for most sterotypes about people or latin, the fallacy is known as post hoc, ergo propter hoc, which translates to "after this, therefore because of this"- the faulty assumption that because one event or action follows another, thr first causes the second. Equivocations - half truths or arguments that give lies an honest appearance. A non sequitur is an argument whose claims, reasons, or warrants don't connect logically. Those who resort to the straw man fallacy attack sn argument that isn't really there, or often s much weaker or more extreme one than the opposing side is making. Red herring faccacies are one that change the sibject abruptly ot throw readers or listeners off the trail. Emotional arguments can be powerful and suitable in many circumstances, and most writers use them frequently. However, writers who pull on their readers' heartstrings or raise their blood pressure too often can violate the good faith on which legitimate argument depends. Politicians, advertisers, and public figures sometimes peddle by scaring people and exaggerating possible dangers well beyond their something terrible happening than to apprecitate its rarity. One way to simplify arguments and give them power is to reduce complicated issuses to just two options, one obviously preferable to the other. The slippery slop fallicy portrays today's tiny misstep as tomorrow's slide to disaster. Overly sentimental appeals use tender emotions excessively to distract readers from facts. Bandwagon appeals urge people to follow the same path everyone else is taking. Because readers give us their closest attention to authors they respect or trust, writers usually want to present themselv s as homest, well-informed, likeable, or sympathetic. But not all the devices that writers use to gain the attention and confidence of readers are admirable. Many academic research papers find and reflect on the work of reputable authorities and introduce these authorities through direct quotations or citations as credible advice. A writer who asserts or assumes that a particular position is the only one that is conceivably acceptable is expressing dogmatism, a fallicy character that undermines the trust that must exist between those that make and listen to arguments. ad hominem arguments attack the character of a person rather than the claims he or she makes. Just as gamblers try to stack the deck by arranging cards so they are sure to win, writers stack the deck when they show you only one side of the story- the one in their favor.
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