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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The Unification or Separation between Heritage Students and Non-Heritage Students in Foreign Language Classroom Heritage learner (HL): a person studying a language that has some proficiency in or a cultural connection to that language through family, community, or country of origin. Non-heritage learner (NHL):a person who has no proficiency in or culture connection to that language through family, community, or country of origin. Description of the Context River Hill High School, Howard County, MD Introduction Presenter:Chunyang Yang a.Differentiation for instructional strategies: 1) different station: listening, writing, reading and speaking 2) i+1 based on the learning content, give HLs a challenging task based on their learning level 3) Let the HLs be the helper to help NHLsb.Heritage learners programand non-heritage learners program Evidence: Solution: 1. Motivation: a. Some heritage students aim for an easy A (interview from Chinese class in RHS & CHS)b. Socio- cultural influences: searching for their ethnic identities and recover the roots of neglected culture heritage (Wen, X. (2011).c. Non- heritage students aims to learn fun Chinese culture (interview from Chinese class in RHS & CHS) Chinese is one of the fastest growing Less Commonly Taught Language in American schools and universities and it is steadily increasing. The increase desiring of students to learn Chinese pose a specific challenge when putting heritage learners and non-heritage learners in the same classroom. Many schools do not offer special classes for Chinese heritage students. Therefore, it leads to:1.Stereotype thread2.Learning output3.Invisible gap 2. Attitude:(interview from Chinese class in RHS & CHS)d. Heritage students privilege: assuming it is an easy A. e. Non-heritage students: I like it that I choose it, so I have to learn it well EthnicityAmerican Indian/Alaskan 0.3%Asian 24.8%Black/African American 6.5%Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 0.1%Hispanic/Latino 8.0%White 56.5%Two or more races 3.8% Connections to the reading 1. One of the drawbacks of mixing heritage and non-heritage students is the intimidation experienced by non-heritage students, especially when they want to speak. 2. It is assumed that HL learners have more advanced linguistic skills. HL learners are assumed to be able to learn the target language at a more accelerated pace3.HLs take advantages of their heritage skills and increase their self-confidence. NHLs will experience a type of immersion environment (at least in lower level classes), and will acquire cultural knowledge (when and if available). 4.Diglossic situation plays a big role in students perceptions of separation. Connection to public discourse 1. Combining HL and non-HL learners is a common phenomenon in many foreign language classrooms. How can we have a higher effective combined foreign language classroom?2. Many heritage speakers who are apparently fluent have never studied their languages in an academic sense and have shortfalls in their knowledge. At the same time, educating them separately can be controversial -- as to some it feels like ethnic segregation. 3. Language educators and practitioners have proposed theoretical frameworks to conceptualize the challenges and the differences in language skills between both groups. Despite this, the teaching of HL learners as a field of study is still not well established. Recommendation 1. Knowledge of HL specific learning strategiesis incomplete, and NHL-specific pedagogy is under development and the teaching of HL learners as a field of study is still not well established. It is still limited to search papers from this area.2. The limited number of empirical studies to support that the difference between linguistic behavior of HL and non-HL learners. Number of students in Chinese class:Total 51 Heritage students: 24 Non-heritage students: 27 Question 1. What is good for students to have a divided classroomfor learners or combined classroom?2. What can educators, language instructors, and policy makers do to deal with this situation and alleviate any concerns either or both groups may exhibit?