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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 THE SKINNY ON DIETARY FAT References:1. Stokes CS, Gluud LL, Casper M, Lammert F. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12(7):1090-1100.e2; quiz e61. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2013.11.031.2. Gletsu-Miller N, Wright BN. Mineral Malnutrition Following Bariatric Surgery. Adv Nutr An Int Rev J. 2013;4(5):506-517. doi:10.3945/an.113.004341.3. Mateljan G. The World's Healthiest Foods. Seattle, WA: The George Mateljan Foundation; 2007.4. Heart-Healthy Cooking: Oils 101. Health Hub from Cleveland Clinic website. Published October 1, 2014. Accessed March 3, 2015.5. The Lowdown on Cooking With Oils. Cenegenics Carolinas Medical Institute website. Published June 8, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2015. A recent study published in the journal of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology showed that high-fat weight loss diets resulted in just as much weight loss as low-fat weight loss diets (1). The study also showed that higher dietary fat intake during periods of rapid weight loss reduced the risk of gallstone formation--a fairly common problem following bariatric surgeries. These findings have the potential to shape how the medicalcommunity views safe and healthy weight loss, especially in the context of bariatric surgery. Post-operative protocols usually call for an extremely low-fat diet, and many post-surgical patients develop nutritional deficiencies as a result, with some being severe (2). In addition to these deficiencies, many patients develop gallstones as a result of rapid weight loss and drastically reduced fat intake. Approximately 36% of patients who undergo gastric bypass develop gallstones within 6 months of surgery,which is when the majority of weight loss occurs (1). Because gallbladder removal in conjunction with bariatric surgery can be costly, and because unnecessary removal of accessory organs involved in digestion can contribute to health problems later, non-surgical approaches to gallstone prevention are preferred. 36% CHEWING THE FAT: QUALITY and TYPE MATTERS Nutritional deficiencies are relatively common after bariatric surgery, with some estimates putting the prevalence at around 82% or more of patients(2). Many of these deficiencies could be prevented with increased levels of dietary fat, particularly the fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). As their name suggests, these vitamins cannot beeffectively absorbed by the body without dietary fat. That isn't to say that all post-surgical patients should eat high-fat diets.Everyone's body is different, and what works for some doesn't necessarily work for others. However, because fat is the backbone of every cell in the human body, appropriate amounts of high-quality healthy fats in the diet are a must. So what amount of fat is appropriate, which fats are healthy, and how dowe distinguish between high-quality and low-quality sources? Generally,higher-quality oils and fats are the least processed. Fats from animal sources tend to have higher concentrations of important nutrients likecalcium and vitamin D -- both of which are commonly deficient in bariatric patients. However, animal fats might cause digestiveupset for some.A good alternative oil for overall digestive health is coconut oil. Most of this medium-chain fatty acid is absorbed directly into thelining of the small intestine, so the body doesn't have to work to break it down (3). 82% GALLBLADDER HEALTH: SURGERY MAY NOT BE THE ANSWER "GOOD" FAT v. "BAD" FAT Some fats and oils are always considered "bad" forhealth, especially those that contain trans fatty acids. But often, the difference between a "good" fat and a "bad" fat isn't the fat itself, but how the fat (or oil) is used. When it comes to cooking, different oils have different purposes, which means that an oil may be"good" if used properly but not as good if used improperly (3).Take for example flaxseed oil. This oil is good for use in non-cooking applications like salad dressings anddips. However, the oil isn't meant to be heated. Its fat structure is far too delicate to stand up to heat, which makes the oil prone to oxidation. Oxidation reactionscan produce free radicals, which can damage or killcells. The rationale behind this holds true for many oils, including extra virgin olive oil. Contrary to popularbelief, extra virgin olive oil shouldn't be used in high-heat cooking applications because it's fairly delicate. As a general rule, oils that have lower smoke points are more delicate and susceptible to damage. Formore information about smoke points, flip the page.
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