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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 What Is linguistics ? ما هو علم اللغويات ؟ double click to change this header text! The scientific study of language الدراسة العلمية للغة Scientific Language علمي اللغة To study a language in much the same way as a scientist studies physics or chemistry Observing language Forming hypothesis Testing hypothesis Refining them on the basis of evidence collected HEPOTHESIS :Adjective(preced)noun a good man a beautiful girl Against our hypothesiswe found acceptable sentence:The man is goodThe girl is beautiful. Adjective modiy the noun Life everlasting Mission impossible ADJECTIVE in English used in: Attributively وصفي predicatively Adjective + nouna good man تنبوئي Noun + verb+AdjectiveThe man is good Is set of signals by whichwe communicate. Are we the only species who use signals to communicate? No we are not . BEES communicate by honeyand siting new hive DOLPHINS:communicate by food andwhistles on danger Human language differ fromanimal language in many ways لغة الإنسان تختلف عن لغة الحيوان في عدة طرق flexibility complexity precision proudctivity quantity التعقيد الدقة الكمية المرونة الإنتاجية There are a number of general points are worth making about language: 1 - Human language is not only vocal system, it can be expressed in writing without limited time and space.2- No two languages behave in exactly the same way, each language has it own rules.3- There are no primitive or inferior language . Language (abstraction) اللغة الوسائط الكلام الكتابة mediums( concrete) writing speech Many books will claim that speech is "primary" and this is true in a number of ways: العديد من الكتب تدعي أن الكلام "أساسي"و هذا صحيح في عدد من الطرق: 1- writing is relatively recent development in human societies2- thousands of speech communities rely solely on speeh3- all of us speak a great deal more than we write4- although we acquire speech without conscious effort , learnto read and writes is usually less spontaneous and less automatic Speech Writing Differerences between Speech and Writing 1- Composed of sounds 2- Makes use of intonation,pitch,rhythm,tempo3- Produced effortlessly-no tools required.4- Transitory 5- preceived by the ear 6- Addressee present 7- Immediate feedback8-Meaning helped by context ,body movement ,gestures9-Spontaneous 10-Associative . 1- composed of letters/signs2- Makes use of punctuation 3- Produced withe effort-tools required.4- Relatively permanent.5- Perceived by the eyes6- Addressee absent7- feedback delayed8- Meaning must be made be clear within the context9- No spontaneous.10-Logical There are some "alphabetic" languages, such as English other "non alphabetic" languages, such as chinese And مستويات اللغة علم الأصوات علم المعاجم علم الصرف علم بناء الجملة Language phonology Morphology lexis Syntax Semantics علم الدلالة levels of languages Made by :Amjad Saad AlmonifID:432007272Section :4E4 Reference: Todd,L.(1987).An introduction to linguistics.England.Longman York press
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