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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The Cerebellum The Cerebellum This part of the brain plays an important role in motor control, attention and language, and in regulating fear and pleasure responses. Mossy Fibers- form excitatory synapses with the granule cells and the cells of the deep nuclei Granule Cells- use glutamate as their neurotransmitter- exert excitatory effects - receive all of their input from mossy fibers Climbing Fibers- send input to Purkinje cells- single fiber "climbs" the dendrites of the Purkinje cell, making a total of up to 300 synapses as it goes Purkinje Cells - shape of their dendritic tree- use GABA as their neurotransmitter- exert inhibitory effects Four Principles ofCerebellum Function: Feedforward Processing:from input to output Divergence and Convergence Modularity: similar internal structure, but different inputs and outputs Plasticity: tremendous flexibility Taylor Daniels2nd hour Cerebellar hemorrhage. Different from other intracranial bleeding, includes no hemiparesis (weakness on one side of the body)Tumors. In adults, metastatic tumors are very common. One case, a24-year-oldwoman, suffered dizziness andthe inability to walk steadily for more than 20 years, but other parts of her brain appear to compensate for the absent cerebellum. Deep Nuclei- at the core of the cerebellum- sole source of output from the cerebellum- majority of neurons use glutamate as their neurotransmitter- lesser number of small cells use GABA as a neurotransmitter Cerebellar damage.Produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learningChanges with age. Some studies havereported reductions in numbers of cells or volume of tissue. Cerebellar agenesis is an extremely rare condition involving complete absence of the cerebellum. Clinical Relations Size of Cerebellumincreases with increasing intelligence Sources
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