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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Political and Economic Systems Rulers headed strong central governments. They were very powerful,but limited by custom and the necessary support of their nobles.By the 1600s, monarchs began to centralize their governmentstructures and clearly defined lines of authority. Government policies were set up to ensure political andeconomic independence. Permanent armies were established, paid for by taxes leviedby the government. Resources were provided for largeprojects of nationalimportance, such as war orvoyages of exploration. Centralized laws and ruleswere set in place by theking and his court for theentire country. National economicpolicies, such astrade rules and taxrules, controlledtrade andbusiness. culture Common national languages unified the citizens. More middle and upper class people became literate and couldread works in their own language. They became more consciousof their societys history. Religious literature was published in the vernacular languagesand this, too, advanced the development of a national identity. A single, unified language chosen from the various dialects becamethe national language of each country. These national languagesexpressed a shared culture. your artboard start from scratch[clears the canvas] People began to see themselves as citizens of a country andbecame more willing to give their allegiance to the monarchs. Exploration of new lands promoted personal feelings of optimismand the importance of exploring all the possibilities that the worldhad to offer. These ideas became part of European worldviews. Citizens were more free to move out of their class, althoughserfdom continued for centuries in some parts of Europe. Some public services began to be provided by central government. The growth and power of the modern states put them incompetition with the authority of the Church. soscile sistums The Francophones, one of Canadas founding peoples, know the central role the Frenchlanguage plays in ensuring the vitality of their identities, cultures, and worldviews.Rights providing for the use of French and English as Canadas official languages, as wellas education for official language minorities, are enshrined in the Canadian constitution.Francophone schools and communities are present across Canada.First Nations, Métis, and Inuit are revitalizing their languages through programsin schools across Canada. They recognize that many concepts in a culture cannot beexpressed in another language. In order to preserve their culture, they must ensurethe continued use of their languages.Many Albertans believe that a diversity of languages provides cultural as well aseconomic benefits. The government believes knowing more than one language isvaluable and has supported language programs across the province. School districtsin Alberta have developed language programs such as Arabic, Blackfoot, Cree,German, Hebrew, Japanese, Mandarin, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish, and Ukrainian. If you were to examine a political map of todays world, what wordswould you use to describe the major areas that divide up thecontinents? You would most likely use words such as countries ornations. The idea of nation began to develop in the Renaissanceand became part of the way we see the world part of our Westernworldview.Towards the end of the Renaissance, small political units joinedtogether to form larger states. There are many reasons why thesestates began to develop into countries: Societies became more urban; power was shifting to the citiesrather than rural areas. Monarchs supported the growth of thecities by improving trade laws and lifting trade barriers and, inturn, the cities gave them allegiance and even more wealth. Citizens developed new identities of belonging to a state as wellas to their local communities, recognizing such commonelements as language, religion, and beliefs in what life should be. Gunpowder was introduced from China, which changed thenature of the battles between monarchs and the nobles whoowned feudal properties. Monarchs used taxes from the cities topurchase gunpowder and to hire mercenary soldiers, whichmeant they could overpower the nobles. Eventually, the kingsgained control of the nobles lands and formed increasinglylarger states. The invention of the printing press and the use of locallanguages helped create national identities. Books were writtenon the histories of the countries, providing common historiesand heroes for people. Exploration of new lands also led to a sense of greater nationalidentity. Citizens developed collective pride in these discoveriesof new parts of the world. Explorations often led to theestablishment of colonies, which brought prestige and wealthto the founding country.No single factor led to the formation of countries. Individualstates developed because all these factors came into play in Europeat approximately the same time a result of changes in ideas andthinking that came out of the Renaissance.
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