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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 DNA fingerprinting By: Juanita Sánchez and Mariana Aguirre ' ' In the USA the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was invented by Kary Mullis,it was used for the first time in 1988. The public sector began to do forensic DNA tests in 1988starting with the FBI laboratories and followed by various states such as Virginia and New York. At the beginning the police officers were sceptic about this method however throughout the pass go the time they start believing in it. The courts accept the the reliability of DNA analysis and is use in many court cases, but the cost of testing, and the misuse of the technique have made it controversial. However there is a lot of people who fight against the DNA data bases because them consider it as a violation of the civil rights. Besides catching criminals it used to identify paternity and non-paternity, determine genetic diseases, for searching relatives and preventing terrorism. However it used to several types of cases there are some states which don't allow DNA fingerprint as an evidence in court. How it is use in United States? How it is use in Colombia? The DNA fingerprinting reached the country around the mid 90s. Colombia based its DNA profiling system in the Spanish fingerprint system. In 1997 the company DNA Solutions created in Colombia a kit of paternity tests which could be done at home and they are still used with a reliability from 99.9% up to 99.999%. Colombia uses the DNA profiling in three mayor cases which are: 1. The identification of biological vestiges of interest in the criminal investigation of many different crimes.2. The identification of human remains and missing persons.3. The biological investigation of paternity and other family relationships. The second one is the most important in Colombia thanks the armed conflict inside the country. Due to this a lot of people could know if their missing relative was found. Thanks it compares a sample between the missing person and an unknown corpse. It is calles Fenix program and was accepted by the Fiscalía Nacional de la Nación. Bibliography (Faas Catherine) (2009) 17 Interesting facts about DNA, Holy kaw. Retrieved from: http://holykaw.alltop.com/17-interesting-facts-about-dna, the 15th of march of 2015. (DNA Solutions) (Unknown) Prueba de ADN, Sección de paternidad. Retrieved from: http://www.pruebadepaternidad.com.co. The 15th of march of 20145. (Castillo,O) (2011) La identificación de criminales a través del ADN, Derechos y criminología. Retrieved from: http://www.monografias.com/trabajos58/identificacion-criminales-adn/identificacion-criminales-adn4.shtml. The 15th of march of2014. (Alonso, A) (December, 2011) ADN forense, investigación criminal y búsqueda de desaparecidos, Sociedad Española de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular. Retrieved from: http://www.sebbm.es/ES/divulgacion-ciencia-para-todos_10/adn-forense--investigacion-criminal-y-busqueda-de-desaparecidos_604. The 10th of March of 2015. (Forensic Genetics policy initiative) (2012) Expansion in uses: familial searching, research uses and counter-terrorism, DNA Databases and Human Rights. Retrieved from: http://dnapolicyinitiative.org/resources/dna-databases-and-human-rights/#Racial_bias,_mass_screens_and_impacts_on_children_and_vulnerable_people the 10th of March of 2015. (National Institute of Justice) (1996) The DNA "wars" are over, Frontline. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/case/revolution/wars.html the 8th of march of 2015. (World of Forensic science) (2005) DNA Fingerprinting, Encyclopedia.org. Retrieved from: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/DNA_fingerprinting.aspx The 11th of March of 2015. (Arnold, P) (12/11/2009) How DNA Fingerprinting Can Solve Crime, DNA and genetic testing. Retrieved from: http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/22149.aspx. The 10th of March of 2015.
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