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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Family, Peer and Media Influences : PARENT AND CAREGIVER GUIDE How do family structures influence behavior and function in children and adolescents? What is the importance of peer relationships on development? How might media and technology affect student development and learning? What are the physiological and sociological effects of alcohol, narcotics, drugs, and tobacco on children and adolescents? According to Levine and Munsch (2014)1. Authoritarian parents These parents are low in nurturance/warmth and in communication with children; high in control and maturity demands. These parents are very controlling and strict obedience is demanded. Use of punitive methods to punish children. Child Behavior outcomes: Less socially competent Less intellectually curiousLack problem-solving skills 2. Permissive parents These parents have low maturity demands, communication, and control; high in nurturance. These parents view themselves as their childs friend. Little to no discipline or inconsistent discipline.Child Behavior outcomes:Immature (relative to peers)Difficulty with impulse controlDifficulty with independent action and taking responsibility How do various child-rearing stylesaffect development in early childhood, middle childhood, & adolescence? 3.Authoritative parents These parents are high in nurturance/warmth, communication, control, and maturity demands. Take their childs viewpoint into consideration. Rather than obedience, they encourage critical thinking and self-responsibility. Child Behavior outcomes:Self-confidence Self-reliant More explorativeMore self-controlled and calm 4.Uninvolved/Neglecting These parents have low demand and control and low acceptance of their children.Child Behavior outcomes: Difficulty with impulsivityDifficulty with social relationshipsDifficulty with academic achievement More likely to be conduct disordered (Levine & Munsch, 2014, "13/ Parenting Styles "). According to Levine and Munsch (2014),There are many reasons why parents may raise their children without a partner. They may have been divorced, lost a partner to death, or never been married. Each of these situations has different consequences for children. Generally children whose parent has died tend to do better regarding education and emotional adjustment in the long run. Society has established ways to support those who have lost a loved one, but it does not have comparable ways of supporting those who have undergone a divorce. Children who lives in a one parent home due to divorce experience increased risk for internalizing problems, such as depression and anxiety. Also associated is externalizing problems such as; antisocial behavior, non compliance in school and delinquency. Single-parent families are much more likely than two-parent families to fall below the poverty line, which can increase parental stress, stressors in the home and reduce parenting skills which has a direct affect on child well-being. Living arrangements as such can also force children to take on roles in which they are not yet ready; it causes them to have to grow up too quickly. Children who experience a parent who has died positive adjustments are linked to their ability to have positive outlook on absent parent and receive economic support ( social security) and benefits. ("13 Children Living Arrangements "). Single Parent Families & Step/ Blended Familes Children who are raised by one or none of their biological parents are more likely to lack behavioral self control. Children who are raised by divorced parents also have lower academic achievement and social development then. The remarriage of a parent does not increase academic performance. Overall adjustment and well being of children in step families is slightly lower on average than that of children in well-functioning biological families, but individual differences are very large, which means that many children in step families are thriving. Higher level of conflict exists in step families or the weaker parent-child bond in these families. ("13 Children Living Arrangements "). Research indicates that the development of a childs behavior is strongly influenced by how well his or her family functions. It is during this time that children are dependent upon adults to meet their needs that their concept of the importance of family develops. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of awareness of family influences on the well-being of a child. (Kwalombota Mahalihali, 2002-2014). Children's peer relationships have enormous influence (2006). Children begin their lives in the social world of their families, however, as they mature they are introduced to the social world of peers and spend increasing amounts of time with kids their own age...The types of relationships they form differ from those they have with parents and siblings and teach them unique skills that impact their development. Peer relationships are more balanced and the partners tend to bring similar levels of ability, reasoning and skill to their interactions." Some of the skills children learn through their peer relationships include assertiveness, conflict management, how to earn respect and control aggression. Research also indicates that play with peers provides children with important opportunities to discuss feelings, expand thought processes and knowledge, and experiment with language and social roles. Because acceptance by a peer group becomes so important, teens may modify their speech, dress, behavior, choices, and activities in order to become more similar to their peers. This increased similarity among peers provides them a sense security and affirms their acceptance into their chosen peer group. The developmental theorist, Erik Erickson, described this developmental step as a crisis of identity vs. identity confusion. The family environment when affected by drugs or alcohol is characterized by disruption and instability, inadequate supervision and parenting, and dysfunctional parent-child relationships. This can put children at greater risk for a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. These children will show more symptoms of depression and anxiety, more school problems and more physical and mental health problems. They could also sufferfrom interpersonal problems, such as, confusion, anxiety, guilt, depression or shame. (Psychological Effects of Drug Use in Adolescents, 2015)."Depression: 20% of teens experience a major depressive disorder at some time during adolescence. Many teens who are depressed haven't received medical attention for their depression and remain undiagnosed. When teens are depressed, they self medicate. Marijuana is often used to relieve anxietyand to help them feel better.Marijuana worsens depression and can lead to other mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia or suicide. Addiction: Teens who are more likely to become addicted to drugs are those with a family history of addiction, teens who have suffered abuse or neglect, teens who use drugs early and those with mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. High Risk Behavior: According to Parents: TheAntidrug, 23% of sexually active high school girls had used alcohol or drugs during their last sexual encounter. These same youths say they didn't use protection because they were high. Adolescents who use drugs are more likely to have multiple sexual partners.Substance abuse may be related to higher rates of unintended pregnancies because of decreased condom use. Because drugs alter perception, teens act impulsively and risk driving while under the influence, having unprotected sex and sharing drug paraphernalia." Percent of teachers who say students' media use has hurt their:Attention Span 71%Writing 58%Face-to-face communication 59%Homework 48% Critical Thinking 42%79% teachers use media and technology as a teaching tool74% say incorporating tablets into the classroom would be helpful to their students' learning, while 26% say it would mainly be a distraction to learning. (The Impact of Technology on the Developing Child, 2013). Technology can be used for many things, some positive, some negative. The effects that are now being documented on children whom are left unattended for hours on end are nothing but negative.Researchers are finding that many parents are using the internet and other forms of technology to raise their children.Children are suffering academically in many ways. Technology is taking away from learning skills that are necessary to survive in society. Many enter school without the ability to pay attention for long periods of time, due to fast pace of the internet.If a child has been trained to occupy their time on the internet when mom or dad is busy instead of going outside and making friends. Parents need to realize these harmful effects of technology and make it a priority that their children learn proper socialization skills doctors say the overwhelming rise in diagnoses such as ADD and ADHD can be directly linked to the overuse of things like cell phones, tablets, computers, and televisions. The stress caused on the body during use of things such as video games causes a persistent hypervigalent sensory system, the long term effects of the body being on alert for long periods of time is the rise we see in weakened immune system, serious diseases, and disorders.Doctors and researchers are linking obesity to the rise in technology as well.Many family units have been damaged due to technology use and although there are some small positive effects of technology on the majority the damage that it is causing to the brains of our children severely outweighs any positive. (The Impact of Technology on the Developing Child, 2013).
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