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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth's upper mantle works its way to the surface. At the surface, it erupts to form lava flows and ash deposits. Over time as the volcanoe continues to erupt, it will get bigger and bigger. Volcanoes! A volcanoe is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Volcanoes erupt because of density and pressure. The lower density of the magma relative to the surrounding rocks causes it to rise (like air bubbles in syrup). It will rise to the surface or to a depth that is determined by the density of the magma and the weight of the rocks above it. Many are located along the Earth's plate boundaries, like Hawaii. During the past 400 years, nearly a quarter of a million people have been killed as a direct result of volcanic eruptions. Indirect aftereffects such as famine, climate change, and disease most likely have tripled that number. The most dangerous volcanoe today is Popocatépetl, nicknamed El Popo, which is just 33 miles from Mexico City. El Popo is still active, There are approximately 1,500 active volcanoes, not counting undersea volcanoes. Of these, only about 20-30 erupt in any one year. About 20% of all volcanoes are under water. Japan has 10% of the worlds active volcanoes. The largest volcanoe on earth is Mauna Loa on Hawai'i Big Island. It is a massive shieldvolcanoe constructed by countless lava flows. Lava flows are almost always too slow to run over people, but they can certainly run over houses, roads, and any other structures. Volcanoes affect people in many ways, some are good, some are not. Some of the bad ways are that houses, buildings, roads, and fields can get covered with ash. As long as you can get the ash off (especially if it is wet), your house may not collapse, but often the people leave because of the ash and are not around to continually clean off their roofs. If the ashfall is really heavy it can make it impossible to breathe. There are no active volcanoes in Australia because it sits in the middle of a tectonic plate. Underwater volcanoe · The worst volcanic disaster of the twentieth century is considered to be the eruption of Mt. Pelée in 1902 on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean which killed 30,121 people.Only two people survived: a shoemaker living on the edge of the island and a prisoner who had been locked in a dungeon cell with thick stone walls. · New ocean floor is created when two oceanic plates move apart and magma bubbles up to fill the rift. This is called a rift volcanoe. Through this process, the Atlantic Ocean is widening by 2 cm. per year, and the East Pacific Rise is widening by 20 cm. a year. In 10 million years, the East Pacific Rise will be 1,240 miles wider. · The three main types of volcanoe shapes are shield, cinder cone, and stratovolcanoe. Stratovolcanoes, also called composite volcanoes, are the most common type of volcanoes and often have symmetrical steep slopes. Classic examples include Mount Rainer in Washington State and Mount Fuji in Japan. shield volcanoe! stratovolcanoe! cinder cone volcanoe! · When the top of a volcanoe top collapses, it forms a caldera, which is Spanish for kettle. The largest caldera is the La Garita Caldera in Colorado which was formed 26-28 million years ago and was one of the largest eruptionsif not the largeston Earth. · Some volcanic islands such as Iceland and Hawaii have black beaches. Their sand is made from basalt, an igneous rock formed when lava cools and has been broken down into sand particles. · When Paricutin in Mexico erupted from 1943-1952, no one was killed by ash, rocks, lava, gases, or mud flows, though three people died from being struck by volcanic lightening. Though there were periods of violent explosions, Paricutin mainly dishcharged quiet flows of lava during its continous nine year eruption. · In 1943, a Mexican farmer named Dionisio Pulido witnessed the birth of a volcanoe in his cornfield about 329 kilometers west of Mexico City. It started as a slight depression in his field and soon became a fissure that emitted smoke and hissing noises. During the next nine years, the volcanoe Paricutin had grown to an elevation of 2,272 meters and its voluminous lava flows had destroyed several towns. · Iceland is made up almost entirely of volcanic rocks like those found on the ocean floor. It gradually built up above sea level through intense and prolonged eruptions.
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