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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Cell Communication: Vision Key Terms: Photoreceptor: A specializedneuron able to detect and react to light. Includes both cones and rods.Phototransduction: Is the process through which photons are converted into electrical signals. Visual transductionoccurs in the retina through photoreceptors.Retina: The thin layer of cells at the back of the eyeball where light is converted into neural signals sent to the brain.Rods: They are photoreceptors, and there are about 120 millionrods found inside of the periphery of the retina. They are 1000x more sensitive to light than cones. Cones: They are photoreceptors, and there are about 6 million cones found inside of the fovea of the retina. They are less sensitive to light than rods. What Type of Cell Communication? The cell communication of vision is known as phototransduction. It is when the photoreceptors convert the signals we receive from the light intochemical or electrical signals. The Optic nerve: Is a trail of neurons directlyattached to the retina of the eye and the brain.When light is sensed by photoreceptors, a message is sent to it straight into the brain, where it is translated into an image. Phototransduction Cascade Rods are elongated cells that literally resemble rods. When no light passesthrough them, they are turned on. When a light DOES pass through them, they are turned off, which turns on other cells.This is why: Inside of a rod are hundreds of thin discs stacked on top of eachother. On each of the discs are proteins called rhodopsin. Inside of these proteins is a little, bent molecule called retinal, or 11-cis retinal. When the light goes through the lens of the eye, into the retina, and through the rods, it will hit the proteins and the retinal inside of the protein. Due to the energy inside of the light, the retina changes into a straight molecule. When the retinal changes shape, the rhodopsin changes shape as well. There is a molecule that is bind to the rhodopsin and it is made up of three parts: alpha subunit, beta subunit, and gams subunit. This molecule as a whole is called transducin. When the rhodopsin changes shape, the transducin breaks away from it and the alpha subunit to bind with another protein on the disc called PDE. When PDE is activated it takes cGMP, a molecule floating in the rod, and converts it into GMP. This is important because there are a bunch of sodium channels that are activated from the attachment of cGMP, located all over the rod that allow sodium into the cell. However, since thereis a decrease in concentration of cGMP, the sodium channels begin to close. Now there is not enough sodium coming into the cell, so the cell hyperpolerizes and the rods turn off. When the rod is turned off, the bipolar cell turns on. The cells that turn on are called on-center bipolar cells. The on-center bipolar cell turns on a retinal ganglion cell. That cells sends an axon to the Optic nerve and then into the brain. This is how the brain receives the information from the light. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
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