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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Valuing Biodiversity Summary Article Summaries Nature provides us with eco services. Conservationists need to work to place monetary value on these services to demonstrate the importance of their preservation and inspire motivation for change. Intrinsic value is not enough to influence communities to make substantive environmentally conscious decisions. Expressing environmental value in terms of a cost/benefit capitalist approach is better understood by communities. In general, communities value nature and support its protection. However, in order to make a change in people's behavior general positive attitudes are not enough to influence behavior. People need to create a personal connection to nature that has significance in their own life contexts. Integrating natural settings and environments not only establish connections with nature, but can also improve the health and well being of communities. Discussion Themes Discussion Themes Continued Discussion Themes Continued Clayton, S. & Myers, G. (2009). "Attitudes, values, and perceptions." Conservation Psychology: Understanding and Promoting Human Care for Nature. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 15-33. Daily, G., Polasky, S., Goldstein, J., Kareiva, P., Mooney, H., Pejchar, L., Ricketts, T., Salzman, J., & Shallenberger, R. (2009). Ecosystem services in decision making: time to deliver. Frontier Ecology Environmental, 7 (1), 21-28. Maguire, L., & Justus, J. (2008). Why intrinsic value is a poor basis for conservation decisions. BioScience, 58(10), 910-911. Miller, J. (2005). Biodiversity conservation and the extinction of experience. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20(8), 430-434. Willingness to Pay: The amount of money a person is willing to pay expresses how much of other goods and services they are willing to give up to get that item. People will only purchase if their willingness to pay is equal to or greater than the price. o Instrumental Value: Provides means for acquiring something else of value; giving back economically. *Tourism value *Production value *Can be biased *Attitudes, values and perceptions impact the weight of value o Intrinsic Value: Replacement Cost: Has value in and of itself*Aesthetic, spiritual, educational, scientific and existence values*May not be strong enough conservation motivator The amount that would have to be paid to replace an asset according to its current value. o Infrastructure: *Varied depending on asset Average estimate range $9-15 million*Capital investment*Maintenance and service costs*Return on investment*Development time o Entertainment value *Varied depending on asset Cost analysis of movie night vs. natural area recreation facilities Movie night calculated using natural area recreation facility replacement cost: $4,049.92 Travel Cost: The time and travel cost expense incurred to visit a site. o Examples: *Bloomingdale Trail, IL $50-70 million*Red Rock State Park, AZ $17 million travel cost estimate/year Revenue could be applied toward research and conservation efforts* Rocky Mountain Arsenal, CO $3 million/year Revenue could be applied toward maintenance, education for conservation and preservation and research studies. Hedonic Pricing: A method of pricing that identifies price factors based certainexternal environmental or perceptual factors that can raise or lower the base price of that good. o Addition of aesthetic enjoyment *Increased property values*Influx of restaurants and entertainment Increased property values o Loss of aesthetic enjoyment *Loss of intrinsic value* Loss of instrumental value Property values Entertainment and restaurant revenues Loss of employment opportunities Extinction of Experience: The cycle of loss and disaffection resulting from a decline of connection with the world. o Decreased natural areas causes less engagement with natural experiences *Cycle continues until there is little to no connection with nature*People not moved to action unlessthere is a direct and personal connection with nature*If an area is no longer relevant few will be willing to invest in its preservation Emily DubickiHeather SchwartzJennifer SchwatzJenna Sewell Class Examples of Placing Value on Biodiversity References Intrinsic Value: *Many examples in our discussion cited that their local parks were free and therefore their value was immeasurable. *The Little Miami bike trail in Ohio is a free bike trail that spans 75 miles. While the trail is free to its users, this natural space is generating business for shops and restaurants located along the trail that cater to the bikers. While still having a highintrinsic value for many people, the trail is also building its instrumental value.* Lyons and the Des Plains River Dam-The public originally placed more intrinsic value on a structure that was inhibiting the natural landscape. However, after its removal, the public began to see how the river became more open to the public. Replacement Value: *Queen Creek Wash in Arizona- Queen Creek Wash is a natural drainage ditch that operates as a recreational space to the local community and is incredibly valuable natural drainage passageway. Its eco-services would be expensive or impossible to replace. Instrumental value: * Great American Ball Park- When building a new stadium, the Citizens of Cincinnati where given the opportunity to vote on the placement of the park. The votingpopulation chose to place the park near the river, instead of restoring the river to a more natural state. This move closes off the river to the public since it isbeing built up.
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