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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 History of our Universe John North 14 billion years ago, all energy and matterwas confined to a single point of enormously high temperature and density, also known as the Primeval Fireball. Then the universe began to expand, its temperature and density decreasingas the volume increased. This is known as the Big Bang and marked the beginningand creation of the universe as we know it. Recession Velocity = Ho x DistanceWhere Ho (Hubble's constant) = 70km/s/Mpc (Km per secondper mega parsec).( 1 Mpc =3.1 x 10^22 metres) Given the basic Motion Formulafrom Physics, Time = Distance/VelocityWe can substitute in velocity =Ho x Distance to get:Time = Distance/Ho x Distance= 1/HoFrom knowing the value ofHubble's constant, time can becalculated, and works out to beabout 14 billion years old. *Side Note* Hubble viewed distant galaxies andnoticed that they were all movingaway from us (Hubble flow). Using this information, he createdHubble's Law. In the beginning, the universe consisted of pure energy at extremelyhigh temperatures. As it expandedit cooled, and this energy gave riseto particles. How does this energy form particles?Only from a process referred to aspair production. Given a high enoughtemperature, two photons of energygive rise to a particle-anti particlepair (anti matter and matter). There was slightly more matter createdthan anti matter. There wasone extra proton for every billionproton-anti proton pairs. From then on, matterhas continued toevolve, clumping intomore complexstructures, eventuallyforming atoms, planets,stars, galaxies, etc. Astronomers and cosmologists, using ourpresent day knowledge of Physics, thinkthey can predict what the universe lookedlike back close to the big bang (10^-43 secondsafter the Big bang) The period between the big bang and 10^-43seconds is often referred to as the Planck Epoch.During this time period, Gravity separated from the other 3 forces (Electromagnetism,Strong and weak forces), which remainedunified. Forming what some call the Superforce. The next epoch is often referred to asthe Grand Unified Theories epoch (GUTepoch for short). These 3 forces, Electromagnetism, Strong and weakforces separated as the universecontinued to cool and expand 10^-35 seconds after the Big bang. From 10^-35 seconds to 10^-4seconds, Quarks (the building blocks ofprotons, neutrons, and electrons) formed,creating the Quark epoch From 10^-4 to about 1 second followingthe Big bang, only very small light particlescalled Leptons were in existence. Thistime period is known as the Lepton epoch. Between 1 and 100 seconds, Protons andNeutrons started fusing, creating what would bethe nuclei of atoms. Although due to the largeamounts of radiation, many of these wouldimmediately break apart. This lead to theNuclear epoch and lead to the formation ofDeuterium ("Heavy Hydrogen") and Helium. The next epoch is called the Atomic epoch,which lasted about 200 million years after the Big bang. This resulted in the creation of most of the simple atoms that exist today.Between 200 million and 3 billion yearsafter the Big bang, galaxies began to form. Thus the Galactic epoch. From the Galactic epoch till now, we are inthe Stellar epoch, which involves the creationand destruction of planets, stars, moons, etc.
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