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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 UNIT 6: Learning Learning is the process of acquiring new information or behaviors. More than 200 years ago, philosophers such as John Locke and David Hume echoed Aristotle's conclusion from 2000 years earlier: We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect eventsthat occur in sequence.Suppose you see and smell peanuts, eat some, and find it satisfying. The next time you see and smell peanuts, you will expect that eating it will again be satisfying. Through cognitive learning we acquire mental information that guides ourbehavior. Observational learning, one form of cognitive learning, lets us learnfrom others' experiences. Two forms of conditioning: Classical conditioning: we learn to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events.- Neutral Stimulus: stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning. - Unconditioned Response: an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus. - Unconditioned Stimulus: a stimulus that unconditionally triggers an UR - Conditioned Response: a learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned response.- Conditioned Stimulus: an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association what an US, comes to triggers a CR. * Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response* Spontaneous Recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned stimulus. * Generalization: tendency for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. * Discrimination: the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. Operant Conditioning: organisms associate their own actions with consequences - Shaping: reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. - Positive Reinforcement: increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforces (any stimulus that strengthens the response when presented)- Negative Reinforcement: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. Negative reinforces any stimulus that when removed strengths a response - Positive Punishment: administration of an averse stimulus to stop a behavior- Negative Punishment: withdrawal of a rewarding stimulus to stop a behavior. *Fixed-ratio schedule: reinforce behavior after a set number of responses.*Variable-ratio schedule: provide reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses.*Fixed-interval schedule: reinforce the first response after a fixed time period*Variable-interval schedule: reinforce the first response after varying time intervals
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