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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Brocard: contributed in the field of mathematics by formulating the concepts which describe the geometry of a triangle. 1866: 1903 References:Burton, D.M. (2011). In D. Burton, The History of Mathematics: An Introduction (p. 480). New York: McGraw-Hill.Charles Babbage. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from Wikipedia: htttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_BabbageLevine, A. (2010, August 18). Babbage's brain. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Babbage#mediaviewer/File:Babbages_Brain.jpgMastin, L. (2010). Cantor-19th Century Mathematics- The story of Mathematics. Retrieved December 3, 2014, from The story of Mathematics: www.storyofmathematics.com/19th_cantor.htmlNature of Mathematics. Massachusetts, Boston:Cengage Learning. O' Connor, J.J. & Robertson, E.F. (1998, October). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from MacTutor History of Mathematics: http://www- history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Babbage.htmlO' Connor, J.J. & Robertson, E.F. (1999, January). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from MacTutor History of Mathematics: http://www-history.mcs.st- and.ac.uk/Biographies/Laplace.htmlO'Connor, J. J., & Robertson, E. F. (2014, November). Hilbert biography: History.MCS. Retrieved December 1, 2014, from History.MCS: ttp://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Hilbert.htmlRansom, H. (n.d.). Exhibitions. Retrieved December 13, 2014, from Harry Ransom Center: http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/firstphotograph/relativity. (2014). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved fromhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/496904/relativity/252891/Principle-of-equivalence. Traumatic Brain Injury DEFINITION DEFINITION As defined by IDEA, TBI must be an acquired injury that was prompted by external physical force and can refer to open or closed head injuries. TBI can cause an array of physical, emotional, behavioral, and social changes. TBI can cause an array of physical, emotional, behavioral, and social changes. CAUSES OF TBI CAUSES OF TBI TBI stands out from other exceptionalities in that it is diagnosed following a specific event. Depending on the severity of the accident, it may be detected by the parent, physician, or in less severe incidents, the teacher. The Glasgow Outcomes Scale is frequently the initial tool used by physicians. If medical tests (CAT scans, MRIs, etc.) lead to a referral, students are evaluated via a number of assessment measures. They might include: Intelligence, cognitive processing and achievement tests, behavior scales, assessments based on social, emotional and behavioral changes, curriculum-based assessments, anecdotal records, and direct observation. As recovery progresses, the need for regular reevaluation is necessary. Teachers should be prepared to make observations within the classroom on a monthly basis directly following the injury, and less frequently in the years that follow. Observation should fall under four categories. As recovery progresses, the need for regular reevaluation is necessary. Teachers should be prepared to make observations within the classroom on a monthly basis directly following the injury, and less frequently in the years that follow. Observation should fall under four categories. Falls Automobile Accidents Being Struck(by or against something) 35% 17% 17% 21% 10% Unknown/other cause Assaults Falls Taking in/retaining information Attention and maintaining activity Language comprehension and expression Taking in/retaining information Awareness IDENTIFTYING TBI TBI AND EDUCATION Classroom Reentry Classroom Reentry The transition back to school should be guided by collaborationbetween rehabilitation professionals, parents, and teachers (Wehman et al, 2015). Teaching Students with TBI Teaching Students with TBI Students with TBI often haveissues with memory. A hand-held memory device is helpful to remind students of their class schedules, due dates, and other pertinent details. Planners, mnemonic strategies, and instructional pacing are tools for assisting students with TBI. Collaborative teaming and problem-solving and decision-making instruction are good strategies to implement in elementary and secondary grades, respectively Students with TBI struggle withexecutive functioning, so many of the assistive technologies, modifications, and instructional strategies are designed to meet that need. Students with TBI struggle withexecutive functioning, so many of the assistive technologies, modifications, and instructional strategies are designed to meet that need. FOR TEACHERS Bamboo Paper (iPad) Penultimate (iPad) Do inClass On the Record Audible SpeakWrite Recorder FOR TEACHERS> Bamboo Paper (iPad)> Penultimate (iPad)> Do! > inClass> On the Record > Audible> SpeakWrite Recorder Accommodations to address memory and attention arebeneficial to students with TBI.Tests that are multiple choice or true/false are better than those that are more recalldependent, and additional time may need to be allotted.Students may also need breaks throughout class time, as concentrating for long periods of time can be difficult. FOR PARENTS Cozi Family Organizer Dragon Dictation Lumosity Awesome Memory Matrix Game FOR PARENTS> Cozi Family Organizer > Dragon Dictation> Lumosity > Awesome Memory > Matrix Game HELPFUL SMARTPHONE APPS WEB RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS The Center on Brain Injury Research and Training http:/cbirt.orgresourceseducators/ Brainline.org http:/www.brainline.orgcontentmultimedia.phpid=3514 Colorado Kids Brain Injury Resource Network http:/cokidswithbraininjury.comeducatorsandprofessionals/ Brain Injury Association http:/biaoregon.orgdocetcResourceschildrenteaching. strategies.for.students.with.brain.injuries.pdfFOR PARENTS Brainline.org http:/www.brainline.orglandingpagesFamily.html Colorado Kids Brain Injury Resource Network http:/cokidswithbraininjury.comparents/ Brain Injury Association California http:/biacal.org National Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury http:/www.tbinrc.com FOR TEACHERS> The Center on Brain Injury Research and Training http://cbirt.org/resources/educators/> Brainline.org http://www.brainline.org/content/multimedia.php?id=3514> Colorado Kids Brain Injury Resource Network http://cokidswithbraininjury.com/educators-and-professionals/> Brain Injury Association http://biaoregon.org/docetc/Resources/children/teaching. strategies.for.students.with.brain.injuries.pdfFOR PARENTS> Brainline.org http://www.brainline.org/landing_pages/Family.html> Colorado Kids Brain Injury Resource Network http://cokidswithbraininjury.com/parents/> Brain Injury Association - California http://biacal.org> National Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury http://www.tbinrc.com Other external aids include written cues, checklists, calendars, outlines, post-it notes, PDAs, digital voice recorders, and smart phones. Mealings, M., Douglas, J., & Olver, J. (2012). Considering the student perspective in returning to school after TBI: A literature review. Brain Injury, 26(10), 1165-1176. Turnbull, A., Turnbull, H. R., Wehmeyer, M., L., & Shogren, K. A. (2013). Exceptional lives: Special education in todays schools (7th ed.). New York: Pearson.Wehman, P. & Targett, P. Returning to school after traumatic brain injury. Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from http://www.msktc.org/tbi/factsheets/Returning-To- School-After-Traumatic-Brain-Injury. (Turnbull et al, 2013, chap. 13) (Turnbull et al, 2013, chap. 13) (Turnbull et al, 2013, chap. 13) (Turnbull et al, 2013, chap. 13) (Turnbull et al, 2013, chap. 13). (Turnbull et al, 2013, chap. 13) REFERENCES REFERENCES Emily Hughes SPED 343 Dr. Whitford Research Project:TBI Spring 2015 Emily Hughes | SPED 343 | Dr. Whitford | Research Project:TBI | Spring 2015 "Within the US each year, more than 124 000 people sustain a TBI severe enough to expect long-term disabilities" (Mealings et al, 2012).
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