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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 PROTONS have a relative mass of 1 and a charge of +1NEUTRONS have a relative mass of 1 and no chargeELECTRONS have a relative mass of 0.0005 and a charge of 1 SUB-ATOMIC PARTICLES The atomic number (Z) is the number of protonsin the nucleus and it distinguishes one elementfrom another.The mass number (A) is the sum of the numberof protons and neutrons in the nucleus.An isotope of an element is an atom of the sameelement with a different mass number (the samenumber of protons but different number of neutrons). The difference in mass of isotopes affects the boiling point,melting point, density and mass of the element, increasingor decreasing it depending on the number of neutrons. MASS SPECTROMETER Some radioisotopes are used for special functions:Technetium 99: Nuclear medicine and biology. It is used tolocate tumours in the human body.Carbon 12: Carbon dating. It is used to determine the ageof objects, stones, etcIodine 131: Medical tracer. It is used in the treatment ofthyroid cancer.Iodine 125: Medical tracer. It is used in the treatment ofthyroid cancer.Cobalt 60: Used in radiotherapy, levelling devices andsterilising food. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1 Vaporised sample is introduced2 Ionisation by electron bombardment3 Positive ions are accelerated by an electrical field4 Ions deflected by a magnetic field5 Detector records the ions of a particular mass6 Vacuum prevents molecules from colliding The relative atomic mass of an element can be calculated by dividingthe weighted isotopic masses by the total abundances. This wouldprovide the average mass of an element. The mass spectrometer can be used to determine the mass of isotopesof an element through the mass spectrum. It produces a graph thatshows the percentage abundance of each isotope and a mass/chargeratio (z/m). From this ratio we can calculate the mass of the isotopes. ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible magneticradiation, such as radio, microwave, infrared, light, x-rays andgamma rays. The only difference between one type of radiationfrom another is its wavelength. The lines in an emission spectrum of hydrogen represent thedifferent energy levels of the atom. When an atom is excited, itselectrons jump to shells further from the nucleus and when theyreturn to their ground state they release energy in the form ofphotons, thus creating lines (different colours) in the emissionspectrum.To deduce the electron arrangement for an element we need todivide the electrons into the four possible shells (1st shell has 2 electrons, the 2nd has 8 electrons, the 3rd has 18 electronsand the 4th has 32). A continuous spectrum shows all energy levels and all colours inthe spectrum. It is emitted by solids, fluids and high pressuregases.A line spectrum shows specific lines which correspond to energylevels. It is emitted by low density hot gases. The number of electrons that fits into a shell can be calculatedby the following formula: Number of Electrons = 2(number of shells) to the power of 2The electron notation is then written in the following manner: Oxygen: 2,8,6
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