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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Chapter 1 V.S. Ramachandran Sus padres Phantom Limbs and Plastic Brains The Tell-Tale Brain When a human's limb is amputated,the map for that limb stays in their brain,as the brain does not know that they nolonger have the limb. This can sometimescause the map for the amputated limp totransfer to another part of the body, forexample the face, due to the brain's highneuroplasticity. Questions That's interesting!.. If any (in the future) what technology, orwith what methods might we be able tocontrol how these brain maps work?Since teenagers, children, and adolescentshave higher brain plasticity, how much doesthis impact the way their brain functions with cognition during these years? Emerging Patterns The Power of Babble: The Evolution of Language The brain's neuroplasticityallows it to be adaptable, whichhas been a gateway to add-itional exploration into neuro-science. When the humanbrain must adapt, the brain canrewire itself, due to the high plasticity. Chapter 6 by Michelle Sahagian That's interesting!.. The 5 aspects of language that arespecific to humans only are: a largeand varied vocabulary, functionalwords, complex sentence forms,metaphor and analogy, and versatile syntax. The processing ofthis language happens in theWernicke's and Broca's areas of thebrain. The Wernicke's area functionsto hear and comprehend language,whereas the Broca's area works towards producing language. Questions Emerging Patterns Although they once communicated likeanimals, humans are the only creatures withan actual, complex form of language. Thereare many theories as to how this cameabout, one of the discussed being naturalselection. Despite the specific reason for thelanguage development, it is clear thatevolution played a large part in the formationand current functions of the current humanbrain. Will animals such as monkeys or dogs ever be able to develop languageas complex as humans, if there Wernicke's and Broca's areas were tobecome stronger parts of their brains?If natural selection really was the reason that humans' complex languageformed, is it possible that it will continue to work and shape human lang-uage into something even more complex and intricate? Chapter 9 An Ape with a Soul: How Introspection Evolved That's interesting!.. Introspection is the way that a person studies them-self. In this, they have their actual self, and their "qualia" (singular: quale). The qualia are the initialreactions to an experience. They are subconsciousresponses to whatever stimulus a person faces.Theway the person views the quale, however, is the"actual self", which is broken down into 7 components. These parts are:unity [all body parts working together], continuity [maintenance ofidentity], embodiment [maintaining life in a consistent setting], privacy[feeling yours, and only your emotions], social embedding [being ableto relate and share with others], free will [ability to make importantdecisions and choices], and self awareness [knowing one's place andeffect on the world. These aspects work together to create the generalconcept of "actual self". Questions Is it possible to gain awareness of the qualia, and train oneself to control those thoughts?If this were possible, would there be differ- entiation between the actual self and the qualia? Or would that be theonly sense of self? The qualia and the seven portions of self aspect developed, as did many other human qualities and parts of the brain, through evolution. And, as has been said before, there are many theories as to exactly how it cameabout, with no clear winner as of now as to explain everything. As Ramachadran explained, this concept is not one that can, "rival the simplicity of a statement like 'because that is how God made us,'" (253).As humans, our brains have evolved in such a way that allows us tohave such, sometimes subconscious, views of self. Emerging Patterns That's interesting!.. Chapter 3 Loud Colors and Hot Babes: Synesthesia Synesthesia is a condition in which various senses blend together,creating unique sensations, suchas hearing colors or tasting numb-ers. Those who have synesthesiacan most commonly see colors innumbers. The fusiform gyrus is thecenter of the brain which regulates perception of senses, and it has beendiscovered that the V4, which processes colors, and the number area ofthe fusiform gyrus are located adjacent to each other. Although there isnot one known cause for synesthesia, it clearly has something to do with the proximity of these two sections and the senses with which theycontrol. Questions If there were a way to discover a link thatwas proven to caused synesthesia,would it be possible to control the bindingof the senses? Emerging Patterns Chapter 2 Synesthesia is essentiallyjust the mixing of two senses,which does not necessarilyhave any physical effect on thebrain, creating difficulty to study. Seeing and Knowing That's interesting!.. Questions When humans look at an object, theireyes decode the items, so that the person is able to interpret what theysee. This decoding is done throughthe canonical neurons, which arelocated in the eye, and begin the processing shapes of surrounding areas. Emerging Patterns If someone did not have canonicalneurons, but the rest of their eyes were fully functional, in which wayswould their eyesight be distorted? Would they work at all? Most species of primates, humans included, have an entire lobe ofthe brain dedicated to the eyes, and eyesight. This shows that suchan intricate process of interpreting vision was adapted evolution-arily, as the lobes became more and more complex, until reachinghumans, who have the most intricate occipital lobes yet.
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