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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Species Background Loss of territories - productive land,industries and raw resources Destruction TheEuropeanStarling Sturnus vulgaris (Linneaus) European starlings are small black birds with an iridescent green and purple gloss on their feathers. The tips of the feathers arecream colored and create a characteristic "flecking" effect. A bird of Eurasia and Northern Africa, the originalbreeding range of the European Starling extends from northern China to Iceland and the Azores, and south down through Europe to the Mediterranean, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan. Northern and eastern populations migrate, and the winter range includes the Mediterranean, North Africa (north of the Sahara), the Arabian Gulf states, Iran, Iraq and northern India. Starlings are common in towns, suburbs, and countryside near human settlements. They feed on the ground on lawns, fields, sidewalks, and parking lots. They perch and roost high on wires, trees, and buildings. 1.) Form communal roosts of 10,000 or more 2.) Combined weight breaks small branches and shootsof trees. 3.) Accumulation a droppings can exceed 1 ft. in depthand can kill mature trees. 4.) They compete with native cavity-nesting birds such as bluebirds, flickers, and other woodpeckers for nesting space causing a decline in numbers for these species. Control 1.) Exclusion 2.) Proper nest box construction 3.) Frightening devices such as distress calls, exploders, lights, and pyrotechnics. 4.) Limit amount of feed available. Improvements 1.) Reduces spread of disease to livestock. 2.) Decrease in competition for bluebirds, flickers, and other woodpeckers. 3.) Reduce total damage to crops which is at $800 million from starlings.
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