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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 By Jerry What is Down Syndrome Down syndrome also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.The baby who was born with down syndrome was always endowed some defects in their body. They always have physical and intellectual disabilities,and the hearing and vision disorders occur in more than half of people with Down syndrome,some of them even sadly have some heart,endocrine,gastroi ntestinal,teeth,fertility problems or cancer. So,how can we reduce the incidence of having a baby with Down syndrome ? Down Syndrome 1 Ultrasound and blood tests: Ultrasound imaging and blood tests are usually used for testing Down syndrome at first ,and the result of the blood tests are often combined with the ultrasound.According to the ultrasound imaging,it can show whether the baby have a small or no nasal bone, large ventricles, nuchal fold thickness, and an abnormal right subclavian artery, among others.Blood tests can measure the amount of α-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol ,hCG ,and βhCG.Combining the result of two tests,we can estimate the incidence of having a baby with Down syndrome preliminary. 2 3 Chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus. If the above two tests show it has a high incidence of Down syndrome ,so this technique will be used to confirm diagnosis .But it is an invasive diagnosis,it entails sampling of the chorionic villus (placental tissue) and testing it for chromosomal abnormalities,it can be performed in a transcervical or transabdominal manner,so it should be discussed with the doctor carefully. Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of fetal infections and chromosomal abnormality ,just such as Down syndrome, and also used for sex determination in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.The test is also invasive just like Chorionic villus sampling and carries a small risk of miscarriage,so it is primarily used for those at increased risk for genetic and chromosomal problems.But it has a really high accuracy.
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