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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 THERMOREGULATION Humans are homeothermic, they keep their internal body temperature constant.During exercise heat is produced; and it is therefore necessary to loose this heat.For this to occur blood is moved from the core of the body, to the surface of the skin.Heat can be lost to the surrounding environment by any four mechanisms: CONDUCTIONCONVECTIONRADIATIONEVAPORATION The transfer of heatby gases. Air passingover our skin takesaway air moleculesthat have been warmed. The main way we looseheat in exercise, weproduce more sweatwhich is evaporated. The transfer of heat through direct contact,from warm skin toclothes and air. Used when resting,60% of heat lost viaradiation, becauseour surroundings arecooler. BLOOD FLUID INTAKE SWEATING HEART Heat exposure combined withexercise results not just inHYPOTHERMIA but also inHYPOHYDRATION, if fluid losses are not replaced.When the body's fluid levels become depleted, dehydrationcan occur. High temperatures,humidity and strenuous exerciseall contribute to reduction in sport performance. Under extreme conditions, water canbe lost at a rate of 2 to 31 perhour. Replacing these fluid losesis very important to preventdehydration. SYMPTOMS INCLUDE:- lethargy- nausea- loss of appetite- anxiety- dizziness- vomitingSome effects can include heatstroke and exhaustion. Dehydration decreases bloodplasma levels, which resultsin less oxygen being deliveredto the exercising muscles andincreases breathing and heartrates.To prevent dehydration, suitablefluids should be consumedbefore, during and after exercise.Sodium should be included in thedrink, promoting retention offluids. Drinks with electrolytes will aid recovery. During exercise blood has tosupply to the muscles and theskin. Redistribution of theblood during exercise reducesthe volume of blood returningto the heart and so reducesstroke volume. Sweat that stays on the skinssurface provides little or nocooling effect.When the humidityof the surrounding air is high,sweat evaporation is limited.Little evaporation takes place,and you become very sweatyand uncomfortable. When thereis low humidity, sweatingbecomes easier. Sweat on skinis a sign of exercise in warmhumid conditions, it also showsthe evaporation system is not working. In order to maintain the cardiacoutput required, there has to bea gradual increase in heart rate(CARDIOVASCULAR DRIFT)The combination of high rateof heat production from theexercise and a restrictedcapacity for heat loss canlead to HYPOTHERMIA, whichmy progress to heat illness,inevitably impairing exerciseperformance.When VO2 max becomesmarkedly reduced, heart rateincreases and internal tempur-ature is raised. The heart risesin an attempt to meet the needto increase blood flow to theskin for cooling and to maintainoxygen supply to the workingmuscles. EXTREME CONDITIONSThese conditions are threateningto athletes, the must learn toreduce their efforts otherwise there is a risk of hypothermia.In cold environments the bodyshivers, heat loss is increasedby wind. Cold reduces strengthof muscles, causing the athleteto get HYPOTHERMIA.
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