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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Sustainable Fisheries and Seas: Sustainable Fisheries and Seas: SUPPORTS OF ITS SPECIES OF EARTH'S SURFACE AND Preventing Ecological Collapse "It is a curious situation that the sea,from which life first arose, should nowbe threatened by the activities of one form of that life." THE OCEAN'S EXPANSE COVERS 71% 50% 1 Billion people worldwide depend onfish for their primary source of protein Ocean Acidification - Between 1992 and 2007, the ocean's pH declined from 8.11 to 8.01. This rate of acidity is faster than any time in the last 300 million years- Acidic seawater stresses reef-building corals and the photosynthetic algae (zooxanthellae)- Zooxanthellae supply coral with important nutrients such as glucose, glycerol, and amino acids.- When corals are stressed due to acidic waters they the algae from the reef-structure, crippling theirability to grow. Troubled Seas, Oceanic Threats - Increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will also warm the ocean as a result of warm air.- There has been a steady increase in seawatertemperature from .22 degrees Celsius above the long-term average in 1992 to .5 degrees Celsiusabove it in 2010.- Ocean warming stresses marine organisms and stimulates bacterial activity, consequently expanding larger low-oxygen regions, known as dead zones. Ocean Warming and Hypoxia - In 2012, the arctic sea ice reached a new lowpoint at 3.41 million km2, the lowest in 8,000 years.- At the current rate of ice loss, the arctic may becompletely ice-free during summer months 30 years from now.- This threatens critical habitats for organisms at thebase of the food web, like algae or krill, which in turn feed larger animals. Loss of Sea Ice - 500 million people rely on fisheries/aquaculture fortheir livelihood, and 3 billion people consume fish.- Pressure on marine ecosystems due to exploitationof commercial fish species has led to depletion and exploitation of 70% of the world's fisheries.- The reduction of top predators like tuna and sharks,food webs may changed, adversely affecting how marine ecosystem productivity is expressed. Devastated Fisheries - Coastal development results in nutrient and sedimentation loading due to human activity, suchas agriculture and the use of road salts.- Chemical and hydrological alterations harm fisheries &habitats such as mangroves, wetlands, and estuaries.- In the North Pacific, approximately 35% of planktoneating fish had ingested plastic, and they averaged 2.1 plastic items per fish. Impacts of Human Activities 1) International Collaboration - Governments must commit to a climate agreement to reduce CO2 emissions, protect marine life,mitigate acidification, and ocean warming.2) To reduce demand on fisheries and reduce destructive fishingpractices, governments can enact policies that implement coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) frameworks and can establishcatch shares.3) Tradable by-catch credits can reduce the volume of discardedfish and sea life. 4) Sustainable aquaculture5) Consumers could decrease their demand on ocean resources by eating less seafood and eating lower on the food chain. Solutions for Sustaining the Sea *Resource: Chapter 6 (Antonia Sohns and Larry Crowder)