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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 What Super-Teachers Do To ImproveConceptual Understanding Multi-FACETED Concept Instruction (Brainerd & Reyna, 2005; Gardner, 2011) Allow Students to Explore and Interact w/ Concepts Through SIMULATIONS & GAMES ELABORATION Exercises & Activities 1- providing a definition & best example2- highlighting the concept's characteristics3- presenting numerous & wide-ranging examples, nonexamples, & 'near-misses'4- asking students to identify examples/nonexamples5- illustrating relationships between concepts through comparing/contrasting, hierarchies, etc. (Ormrod, 2014) Multi-MODAL Conecpt Instruction Information is encoded into long-term memory in a variety of ways. Teachers should, therefore, present information verbally, semantically, kinesthetically, & using imagery as often as possible. Encouraging Students to Generate their ownEXAMPLES & MENTAL MODELS While students can learn much from effective concept instruction, they also must be provided opportunities to create their own non-linguistic representations such as graphic representations, mental pictures, pictographs, physical models, & by engaging in kinesthetic activity. (Marzano et al., 2001; Omrod, 2014) Students should be expected to elaborate, or embellish on new information based on what they already know so as to permit the brain to store more information than was actually presented. Some elaboration activities includeasking students to provide additional examples, collaboration w/ peers, classroom discussions, & new learning situations that allow them to develop & apply new knowledge. (Van Boxtel et al., 2000; Marzano & Simms, 2013) Well-designed simulations and games often engage students in real-world problems through the use of models, role playing, and/or decision-making. Games & simulations encourage learners to explore & interact w/ concepts. They stimulate interest & enthusiasmfor concepts, while providing multiple exposure to them. (Hattie, 2009; Marzano, 2009) @CurtisChandler6 " " Parallel Lines
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