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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Stereotypes A widely held mental picture that represents an oversimplified, prejudiced, or uncritical judgement. characterize large groups on the basis of common attributes acquired at an early age (before knowledge of groups) become more hostile when social tension and conflict exist slow to change used to 'make sense' of the world and intergroup relations Characteristics Formation Social-Cognitive theories SIT (group identity) theory Social Representations theory System-Justification theory Heuristics: well-used non-optical rule of thumb used to make a judgement that is effective in many cases Implicit personality theory: a schema people use to cluster various kinds of personality traits together Illusory correlation: when assuming a relationship between two variables, tendency to overestimate the degree of correlation, or see a correlation where non exists Confirmation bias: tendency to search for new information that confirms our ideas and overlook information that contradicts what we think Categorization: result of outgroup, where people tend to see members of an outgroup as similar to eachother (stereotype) SIT predicts that stereotypes are flexible and context-dependent In SIT, categorization enriches social perception -people like to see the world as predictable -justify existing hierarchies and structures within society -subordinate group want to preserve status quo even if it means maintaining their position of disadvantage uncertainty reduction: better to live disadvantaged but known future than choose to disrupt that and face uncertain future Attribution: making inferences about events, others' behavior & personality traits (dispositional), and own behavior & personality traits (self-serving and self-centred) -people seek to preserve the status quo -explanation of how cultural knowledge may be constructed -meaning is created through a system of social negotiation -interpretations may require an understanding of additional aspects of that social environment -difference in social representation of different groups create group identity -contemporary take on 'common sense'; how communities make shared sense of their world guide social action: interpret own and others' action in context of shared knowledge -facilitate communication by establishing shared social reality -performance impairment which occurs when individuals carry out taks while being aware of a negative stereotype held against them -people may experience a threat even if they don't believe in the stereotype -focus on strenths of in-group -learn about stereotype threat -not requesting demographic information prior to testing -affirming a distinctive value attribute Halo effect: attributing positive traits to a person with more positive impression Social-Cognitive theories -blurring group boundaries and presenting tests as being sensitive to group differences SIT (group identity) theory System-Justification theory Social Representations theory Stereotype threat How to avoid it By: Yarene Song & Nikki Sigrist
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