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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 SNIFFING OUT - Uncomfortable - Finds some cancers before symptoms - Finds suspicious abnormalities Cancer Screening - Not always accurate - Not enough tissue extracted for diagnosis the - Accurate and Less Costly- Quick and Invasive - Finds/ prevents cancer- Looks at parts of body that could not be seen any other way- Not very invasive Current Cancer Detection Methods key Endoscopy Along, thin, flexible tube with a camera and a light on the end. Doctors can use this to look inside parts of your body to check for abnormalities. Tissue Samples The only certain way to diagnose cancer is to takea cell sample (process called a biopsy) and look atit under a microscope.This is done by placing a needle into the affected area and extracting cells. be in Cancer screening detects cancers when they are at an early stage. ALKANES AROMATIC COMPOUNDS The breath and urine of cancer patientsis chemically different than that of healthy people. It contains a high degree of organic compounds like alkanes, aromatic compounds, and benzene derivatives.This increase in compounds is said to have arisen due to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress speeds up metabolism in cells, which is correlated to an increase in metabolism byproducts. It is believed that dogs are able to detect the scents of these compounds and distinguish whether or not a person has cancer (Zaphiris, 2013). A group of researchers worked together using dogs to find ovarian cancer in its early-stage. Dogs have an extraordinary sense of smell. Volatile organic compounds, or odorants, are altered in the early stages of ovarian cancer.Researchers say that studies have shown that trained dogs, with the help of electronic devices, are able to detect quantities of odorants. A study from Italian researchers found that specially trained dogs were able to detect prostate cancer from urine samples with 98% accuracy (Whiteman, 2014). Studies show that dogs can detect early stages of cancer with a high percentage of sensitivity. Dogs can provide an accurate early detection screening for cancer. Diagnostic accuracy of canine scent detection was looked at to find early andlate stage lung, breast, and ovarian cancer.Dogs have been successfully trained to find urine containing E.coli and to determine healthy samples of urine from infected samples (Canine Cancer Detection, 2013). Extraordinary Extraordinary Accuracy Accuracy Trained BENZENE DERIATIVES The knowledge we gain from the data of dogs being able to sniff out cancer will be used for cancer detection in the future. From the tests, healthcare professionals were able to conclude that dogs are able to detect cancer 98% of the time. They are trained to detect certain types of cancer, if they aretrained well enough they are able to detect the cancer immediately, but the training will require the welfare of the dogs.Dogs are able to detect cancer at stage zero. No machine to date can do that. By using the idea of dogs being able to detect cancer, in the future, will allow us to build a device that enables us to do what the dogs can do. Dogs are being trained to detect cancers other than prostate or ovarian cancer. Since even now they are able to detect cancer at such an early stage the dogs and the information learned from them will be used in the future to help out the healthcare professionals (Canine Cancer Detection, 2013). In 2003, there was a 12 week look at the diagnostic accuracy of canine scent. The dogs were able to detect cancer with 98% accuracy. The dogsare trained on breath samples from cancer patients. The dogs are trainedon so many different cancer samples until the only thing remaining is thecancer scent itself. A few weeks of training and the dogs were able to move into double blind testing. Double blinding involved no one knowing (dog,handler, or data recorder) if there was a cancer sample present amonghealthy controls, or not. Each sample is numbered, so no one but the person analysing the data knows if the dogs are right, or wrong. They cameout 98% accurate on double blind testing (Dogs that smell cancer, 2013) ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES When diagnosing a severe disease like cancer, it is important to correctly detect it. This means having a test that is reliable and accurate, to minimize the chances that the cancers will be missed, or that a wrong diagnosis will be made (Arney, 2009) . - Not a realistic solution To put this in effect, "dogs would need to be trained, housed, and fed, and would not be able to work for more than a few hours at a time for the sake of their welfare" (Arney, 2009). - Uncertainty - Promising remedy Uncertain whether dogs are responding to specific molecules associated with a tumour, or from a general illness. They could also get confused with other scent molecules left on the breath or urine, and since they are not able to tell us which molecules are a concern, it makes it hard for doctors to diagnosis a patient (Arney, 2009). Dogs can help to detect cancer with a 88% specificity, and 99% sensitivity (Arney, 2009). 88% specificity - Accuracy is questionable. Exposed us to the possibility that cancer could be correlated with a change in the scent of breath and urine, which has led scientists to begin looking into technology like the electronic nose. Such a technology, could prove to be a cheaper and more effective way to detect and diagnose cancer (Arney, 2009) . 99% sensitivity - Potential FUN FACT: There are alkanes derivatives in the breath of cancer patients which dogs sniff out because they can smell parts per trillion (Zaphiris, 2013). Can dogs be the key in detecting cancer?
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