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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 HOW TO MAKE SOAP History: The first soap was made by Babylonians and Phoenicians! double click to change this title text! Important process -Saponification: A saponification reaction, in general, is the where an ester is reacted with a strong base to form a carboxylic acid salt and an alcohol. Fats and oils start as triesters of fatty acids and glycerol (called a triol). They can be reacted with strong bases like sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) to give fatty acid salts (soap) and glycerol. NOW LET'S MAKE SOAP! 1.Upon arriving in the lab, place your 200ml COCONUT OIL POUCH in the WARM WATER BATH. 2.SLIGHTLY Open the pouch and measure the temperature. The oil should be about 35-40 degree s C. If it is still cold, fill a beaker with the warm water and stand the pouch up in the water until warm. 3. If the temperature is right, weigh the 200 ml of coconut oil. It should be about 180 grams of coconut oil. If less, add some. If more, remove some. 4. Place the oil in a 250 ml beaker. 5.IN THE SINK - CAREFULLY MEASURE 63 ml of 12 M NaOH in a 100ml Graduated Cylinder. WARNINGTHIS NaOH IS HIGHLYCONCENTRATED AND WILL SERIOUSLY BURN YOU OR YOUR CLOTHES.GOGGLES AND APRONS ARE REQUIRED AT ALL TIMES. 6. WHILE CONSTANTLY STIRRING with a glass rod, SLOWLY pour A THIN STREAM of the NaOH solution into the beaker of COCONUT OIL Take turns stirring. 7. Maintain a steady, strong stirring motion. Stirring should not so fast as to splash but fast enough to keep the mixture in constant motion.Your goal is to get the oil, lye and water molecules to meet and combine to make soap. Make sure to stir thoroughly all areas of the beaker.As the reaction happens, the mixture will turn creamy and opaque and will begin to thicken. 8. Stir mixture until it begins to trace Trace: sign that reaction betweenoil and NaOH is almost complete. 2 Signs: a) Thick consistencylike cake batter.b)Leaving of a trail. 10. Once you have trace, you can color your soap with 1-2 drops of food coloring. It should be noted that food oloring is affected by pH and may change color over time. Mix it well. 11. To add a scent, use only one or two drops of scent. When you have added the scent use gloved hands to mix it in. You want to do this before it dries too much. 12.Pour final mixture into the plastic cups and leave to cure. 13. After a day or two, remove it from the plastic cup and wrap in waxed paper to aid the curing process. This type of soap needs to mature to lose its alkalinity (pH10-12 when new). The reaction of carbon dioxide in the air will slowly neutralize any remaining hydroxide present.Use only after at least 3 weeks of curing, or when pH level is around 8 What are the reactants and products of this reaction?A: The reactants and products of the experiment are: triglyceride and NaOH (strong base) for the reactants, and the fatty acid salt (soap) and glycerol for the products. Why did we wait until the last step to add the fragrances?A: We wait until the last step to add fragrances (and also coloring) because they may speed up the saponification process, and thus making the soap too thick to pour into the plastic cups. How does soap removeoil or dirt?A: Soap acts as an emulsifyingagent. Oil is non-polar, while water is polar. The head andtail from the soap molecules arepolar and non-polar respectively.The head attaches to the water while the tail to the oil. Therefore, the soap forms micelles with the oil and gets suspended in the waterthen washed away. General structure for coconut oil showing glycerol and fatty carboxylic acids.
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