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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Quantum Atomic Model Scientists Who Contributed to this model: His most memorable discoveries is the Uncertainty Principle. This means that electrons do NOT travel in neat orbits. Also, all electrons that contain photons will then change momentum and physics.Werner's contribution was that he calculated the behavior of electrons, and subatomic particles that also make up an atom. Surrounding the outside of an atomic nucleus is an electron cloud, which is a name given to the electrons that are widely spreading and moving around. In conclusion, he contributed to the atomic theory by including quantum mechanics, used for interpretating the behavior of elementary particles and atoms. Heisenberg Schrödinger He took the Bohr atom model one step further. Schrödinger used mathematical equations to describe the likelihood of finding an electron in a certain position.Unlike the Bohr model, the quantum mechanical model does not define the exact path of an electron, but rather, predicts the odds of the location of the electron. This model can be portrayed as a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud. Where the cloud is most dense, the probability of finding the electron is greatest, and conversely, the electron is less likely to be in a less dense area of the cloud. De Broigle He suggested that, like light, electrons could act as both particles and waves. His hypothesis was soon confirmed in experiments that showed electron beams could be diffracted or bent as they passed through a slit much like light could. So, the waves produced by an electron confined in its orbit about the nucleus sets up a standing wave of specific wavelength, energy and frequency (i.e., Bohr's energy levels) much like a guitar string sets up a standing wave when plucked. Einstein He used Planck's concept of the quantum to explain certain properties of the photoelectric effect -an experimentally observed phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from metal surfaces when radiation falls on these surfaces.According to classical theory, the energy, as measured by the voltage of the emitted electrons, should be proportional to the intensity of the radiation. Actually, however, the energy of the electrons was found to be independent of the intensity of radiation-which determined only the number of electrons emitted-and to depend solely on the frequency of the radiation. The higher the frequency of the incident radiation, the greater is the electron energy; below a certain critical frequency no electrons are emitted. The energy of the quantum is proportional to the frequency, and so the energy of the electron depends on the frequency. Shortcomings of Bohr's model It is in violation of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Bohr Model considers electrons to have both a known radius and orbit, which is impossible according to Heisenberg.The Bohr Model is very limited in terms of size. Poor spectral predictions are obtained when larger atoms are in question.It cannot predict the relative intensities of spectral lines.It does not explain the Zeeman Effect, when the spectral line is split into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. The Bohr Model is not appropriate for atoms other than oxygen. Photon's meaning: a particle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency but has zero rest mass.
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