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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 People can learn through observing models,vicarious learning. Behaviour can be enhanced when there is reinforcement, eitherthrough punishment or rewards. Bobo Doll - Bandura and Walters 1961SLT is demonstrated in young children as theyobserve aggressive adult models.1963Production of behaviour only happens whenrewarded. Evaluation SLT present for adults too!Philips (1968) homicide rates correlated withboxing matchesBobo Doll - Demand Characteristics!kung San absence of aggressive models - Cultural Difference IDA - Ethical Issues make testing SLT to be difficult. Deindividuation Nature Reduced self evaluation, andevaluation of othersIncrease in anti-social behaviourMore likely when anonymous, in a large crowd or when drunk Process Social norms usually inhibits antisocial behaviourInhibitions are removed when deindividualised Evaluation Zimbardo (1969) - AnonymityLonger shocks when participants are anonymousPostmes and SPpears (1988) Meta analysis - insufficient claim for this theoryIDA - Gendeer bias, male more likely to be aggressivewhen deindividualised (Cannavale et al.) Institutional Aggression Prison Violence Importation model - behaviour were imported from outsideof prisonGang membership - Pre prison, if people were in gangs,more likely to be in gang when in prisonDeprivation model - lack of privacy, too much noise, heat,etc. causing inmates to be aggressive. Genocide Dehumanisation - removal of moral restraints against killingother human (e.g. calling enemy cockroaches, Tutsi)Milgram - Sitiuational pressure leading to aggressive obedience Evaluation double click to change this header text! Bystanders - No intervention leades to continue killingDehumanisation - explains aggression to immigrantsObedience - ignores factors such as anti SemitismIDA - Dehumanisation explains violence towardsrefugees through social dominance orientation Aggression Social learning theory Neural and Hormonal Explanations Towards Aggression Neural Transmitter Low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamineassociated with aggressive behaviourSerotonin normally inhibits aggressive behaviourMann (1990) - Dexfenfluramine decrease serotonincausing increase in aggressive behaviourLavine (1997) - Amphetamines increase dopaminelevels and aggresive behaviourBuitelaar (2003) Antipsychotyics reduce dopamineactivity - also reduce aggressive behaviour Hormonal Mechanisms Testosterone influences aggresive behaviourDabbs et al. (1987) - testosterone high amongviolent criminalsChallenge Hypothesis - Testosterone levels riseas a responce to social challengesCortisol inhibts testosterone, decreasingaggressive behavior Evaluation Scerbo and Raine (1993) - found serotonin linkbut not dopamine linkAnimal studies support serotoninAntidepressent support serotoninDopamine might be consequence rather thancauseArcher (1991) - Meta analysis shows weakpositive link between testosterone and aggresivebehaviourIncosistent evidence for testosteroneMazur (1985) Testosterone linked to dominanceMcBurnett et al. (2000) - Supported in boys withbehaviour poblemsIDA - Reductionist, Aggression is much more complex - Gender bias, focused on males Genetic Factors Towards Aggression Twin studies Coccarco et al (1997) - genetic factos account for 50%of variance in aggresive behaviour Adoption studies Hutchings and Mednick (1975) - Children with convictionhad fathers with criminal convictions. Gene for aggression Gene for MAOA associated with aggressionBrunner et al (1993) - violent men ad low levels of MAOACaspi et al (202) MAOA linked to aggression in children Genetics and violent crime Brennan and Madnick (1993) - genetic influencessignificant in property crime but not in violent crime Evaluation Miles and Carey (1997) - meta analysis suggests 50%variance in aggression due to genetic factorsDifficult to determine what i a product of geneticinheritanceMore than one gene contributes to aggressionSome violent criminals are not generally aggresive Evolutionary Explanations towards Agression Jealousy Sexual jealousy detetrs mate from infidelity andavoid cuckoldrymate retention stratergies are used (directguarding and negative inducement)Dobash and Dobash (1984) - sexual jealousy ismain cause to battered wivesDell (1984) - jealousy accounted for 17% of murderin the UK Infidelity Daly et al (1982) Infidelity key preditor of partner violenceInfidelity can lead to sexual coercion or partner rapeViolence towards pregnant wife could be to terminate pregancyUxorcide - unintended outcome Evaluation Shackel ford et al (2005) - support retention stratergiesTakahashi et al (2006) - jealousy activity Camilleri and Quinsey (2004) - Men convicted of rapingpartners had cuckoldry risksIDA - Gender bias - Felson (1997) - woman twice as likely to murder out of jealousy
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