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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 PROSTATE CANCER The Prostate is a gland found only in males. It sits below the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. Several types of cells are found in the prostate, but almost all prostate cancers developfrom the gland cells (the cells that make the prostate fluid that is added to the semen).The medical term for a cancer that starts in gland cells is adenocarcinoma.Other types of cancer can also start in the prostate gland, including: Sarcomas Small cell carcinomas Neuroendocrine tumors (other than small cell carcinomas) Transitional cell carcinomas What are the key statistics about prostatecancer?Other than skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men. TheAmerican Cancer Societys estimates for prostate cancer in the United States for 2015are: About 220,800 new cases of prostate cancer About 27,540 deaths from prostate cancerAbout 1 man in 7 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.Prostate cancer occurs mainly in older men. About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in menaged 65 or older, and it is rare before age 40. The average age at the time of diagnosis isabout 66.Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind onlylung cancer. About 1 man in 38 will die of prostate cancer.Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer donot die from it. In fact, more than 2.9 million men in the United States who have beendiagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today. What are the risk factors for prostatecancer?But risk factors dont tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors neverget cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.We dont yet completely understand the causes of prostate cancer, but researchers havefound several factors that might affect a mans risk of getting it.AgeProstate cancer is very rare in men younger than 40, but the chance of having prostatecancer rises rapidly after age 50. About 6 in 10 cases of prostate cancer are found in menover the age of 65. Race/ethnicityProstate cancer occurs more often in African-American men and in Caribbean men ofAfrican ancestry than in men of other races. African-American men are also more thantwice as likely to die of prostate cancer as white men. Prostate cancer occurs less often inAsian-American and Hispanic/Latino men than in non-Hispanic whites. Family historyProstate cancer seems to run in some families, which suggests that in some cases theremay be an inherited or genetic factor. Having a father or brother with prostate cancermore than doubles a mans risk of developing this disease. Men who eat a lot of red meat or high-fat dairy products appear to have a slightly higherchance of getting prostate cancer. These men also tend to eat fewer fruits and vegetables There is some evidence that firefighters are exposed to substances (toxic combustionproducts) that may increase their risk of prostate cancer. Most healthy men have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL)of blood. The chance of having prostate cancer goes up as the PSA level goesup PSA blood testThe prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test is used mainly to try to find prostatecancer early in men without symptoms (see Prostate Cancer Prevention and EarlyDetection). But it is also one of the first tests done in men who have symptoms that mightbe caused by prostate cancer Signs and symptoms of prostate cancerEarly prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. But more advanced prostate cancerscan sometimes cause symptoms, such as: Problems passing urine, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need tourinate more often, especially at night. Blood in the urine Trouble getting an erection (erectile dysfunction) Pain in the hips, back (spine), chest (ribs), or other areas from cancer that has spreadto bones Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, or even loss of bladder or bowel control Prostate biopsyIf certain symptoms or the results of early detection tests a PSA blood test and/or DRE suggest that you might have prostate cancer, your doctor will do a prostate biopsy tofind out.A biopsy is a procedure in which a sample of body tissue is removed and then looked atunder a microscope. A core needle biopsy is the main method used to diagnose prostatecancer. It is usually done by a urologist, a surgeon who treats cancers of the genital andurinary tract, which includes the prostate gland.Using transrectal ultrasound to see the prostate gland, the doctor quickly inserts a thin,hollow needle through the wall of the rectum into the prostate. When the needle is pulledout it removes a small cylinder (core) of prostate tissue. This is repeated from 8 to18times, but most urologists will take about 12 samples. Treating Prostate CancerExpectant management (watchful waiting) or active surveillance Surgery Radiation therapy Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) Hormone therapy Chemotherapy Vaccine treatment Bone-directed treatment Because prostate cancer often grows very slowly, some men (especially those who areolder or have other serious health problems) might never need treatment for their prostatecancer. Instead, their doctors may recommend approaches known as expectantmanagement, watchful waiting, observation, or active surveillance. Some things that can Prevent Prostate Cancer:Body weight, physical activity, and diet.Vitamin, mineral, and other supplements.Medicines and Aspirin
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