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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 cases reported in 2013 416 3 - no. of countries in which polio remains endemic 200 in every cases of polio result in paralysis The poliovirus underneath a transmission electron microscope (TEM) Key Endemic Outbreak According to the Polio Eradication Organization, eradicating polio is not only possible, but cost effective as well. At an estimated cost of $5.5 billion, the Polio Eradication Endgame and Strategic Plan promises to generate up to $25 billion in additional net benefits over the next 20 years. 2003 boycott in northern Nigeria against polio vaccine led by heads of Nigerian states Kano, Zamfara, and Kaduna. Vaccine was thought to contain estradiol hormone or anti-fertility substances. Poliomyelitis 1 Prevalence of Polio Worldwide Also called infantile paralysis, poliomyelitis is caused by the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus. Being an RNA virus it colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. More specifically, the oropharynx and the intestine. The structure of this virus is very simple: a single RNA genome strand, encased in a protein shell or capsid. There are three serotypes of poliovirus that have been identified- poliovirus type 1, type 2 and type 3. All three types result in flu-like symptoms and are highly virulent. In rare cases, the poliovirus invades the central nervous system. The virus infects more than 95% of the spinal motor neurons and many more cells in the brain. These neurons cannot be replaced once destroyed and so the result is paralysis. Since 2012, more than 60 polio workers have been killed in Pakistan and Afghanistan, suspected by Islamic extremists as being covert military agents. Poliomyelitis does not have a cure, but can be prevented by immunization. Alfred Sabin used a weakened form of poliovirus which was cost effective and could be taken orally. In the 1950s iron lungs were used to support severely ill, polio-infected patients with breathing and later the one-pound portable Monaghan was introduced. Alec Mearns 7B Effects of Poliomyelitis on Human Body Sub-Clinical: asymptomatic Non-paralytic: Produces mild flu-like symptoms Paralytic: Rarest type, consists of three sub-types: spinal, bulbar and bulbospinal polio Poliovirus particles can often be found in feces. Polio is contracted when a human being comes in direct contact with any surface contaminated with the poliovirus such as in areas of poverty and poor sanitation. The social and economic impacts of polio are heavy. For example, loss of earning potential, social stigma, and loss of dignity and self-esteem.
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