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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Affected Systems The female reproductive system has two ovaries that make and release ova in follicles once about every 28 days. The endocrinesystem releases two substances into the bloodstream from the pituitary gland, lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These substances cause the follicles of eggs to swell and grow, eventually forming cysts that burst and release an ovum. The ovum are released into the fallopian tubes, and then into the uterus. This is called ovulation. If there is male sperm present, then the ova will be fertilized. This fertilized ova will insert itself into the thick lining of the uterus and become a fetus. If there is no sperm present, then the ova and the uterine lining shed themselves out of the vagina. This is called menstruation. Affects on the Reproductive System The victim will produce higher levels of androgens, causing things like hirsutism. Levels of LH and FSH will be imbalanced. There is a higher risk of other disorders because of the disease. Most women do not realize that they have the disorder until they notice a very irregular menstrual cycle. It hardly affects their lives at all, except for infertility and an irregular menstrual cycle. The disorder causes the ovaries to not release an ovum, meaning that women will have periods as well as other symptoms like a higher risk for diabetes, breast cancer, endometrial cancer. Infertility can also be a symptom. The disorder causes masculinization (hair growth, deepening of voice, etc.), weight gain, and dark, watery skin growths. Internally, it causes enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts. It changes the production of hormones: more irregular production of LH and FSH, increase in production of androgens, and adds a resistanceto insulin. The only problems are erratic periods and infertility, as well as a high risk of other, more dangerous diseases. Symptoms PCOS causes normal ovulation to not occur. The ova does not release from the ovaries because the cysts do not burst open, causing ovaries with many swollen cysts. The possible causes include an imbalance in LH and FSH, the overproduction of androgens, and a resistance to insulin. It puts women at a higher risk of endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes. Women may visit a doctor and ask about PCOS if they have an absence of menstrual periods for at least six months, infertility and/or abnormal hair growth or acne. You must go through a physical or a blood test to see if you have the disease. Fundukian, L. (2010). The Gale Encyclopedia of Genetic Disorders (3rd ed., Vol. 2). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from ovary syndrome (PCOS) fact sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from Treatment Hormones can be administered to regulate the production of LH, FSH, and androgens. This helps women regain their normal menstrual cycles and gives them the ability to havechildren. Both the disease itself and its symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. In the long term, an individual is only affected by her inability to have children, and this can be treated easily. It is only physically limiting in the sense that it can cause infertility. The life-span of someone with PCOS is about the same as the general population. Technically, it can be detected by a physical or blood test before symptoms appear, but most women develop symptoms during puberty and are not aware that they might have the disease until afterwards. It cannot be detected prenatally. Detection Detection Prognosis
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