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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Nephrolithiasi s Description: Clinical manifestation/diagnosis - what are the signs and symptoms? What is the appearance of someone who has it? How is it diagnosed? Treatments - what are the medical treatments available for this? Includes pain relievers and drinking water. Medical procedures may be needed to remove or break up larger stones. Cures - is there a cure for it?Are there any experimental trialsBeing tested? Prescription Anti-inflammatory: Ketorolac, IndometacinDiuretic: Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)Other treatments: Tamsulosin (Flomax), MetoclopramideSelf-treatmentBicarbonateAlso commonLifestyle: Increase fluid intakeProcedures: Laser lithotripsy, Extracorporeal shockwave therapyOther treatments: Calcium citrate, Ureteroscopy with Laser lithotripsy, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL), Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, Ureteral stents Kidney stones form within the collecting duct of the kidneys,where urine is first formed. Transmission/caus es: Kidney Stones 2,000 to 3,000,000 us cases per year kidney stones; Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and acid salts that stick together in concentrated urine. They can be painful when passing through the urinary tract. Kidney stones usually don't cause permanent damage. Kidney stones are rock like masseswithin the urinary tractformed by the crystallizationof various elements excreted in the urine. Occurrence - how many people suffer from this disorder? How common is it? People may experience:Pain: in the back, side part of the body, or testicle, can occur at night or during urination, can be sharp, dull, or sudden in the abdomen, severe or mildUrinary: frequent urination, persistent urge to urinate, blood in urine, or excessive urinationWhole body: sweating, nausea, or chillsAlso common: burning sensation or vomitingIt is diagnosed through lab tests or imaging Prevention - how can it be prevented? Lifestyle changes: increase fluid intake, eat fewer oxalate-rich foods, choose a Diet low lowin animal protein, continue eating calcium rich foods, but use caution with calcium supplements. Medications: calcium stones - thiazide diuretic is prescribed Uric acid stones - Your doctor may prescribe allopurinol (Zyloprim, Aloprim) to reduce uric acid levels in your blood and urine and a medicine to keep your urine alkaline.Struvite stones - doctor may prescribe long term use of antibioticsCystine stones - increase fluid intake, but if that doesn't work then your doctor may also prescribe a medication that decreases the amount of cystine in your urine
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