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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 The Nature of Learning NL Chapter 6 Three "alternative understandings of how learning occurs (198) Dimension 2: The Sources of Ability Dimension 3: Infrastructure for Learning Dimension 1: The Processes of Learning Copyright*resources - NAR 2011 Profile of Home Buyers and Sellers,,, 1. Behaviourism 3. Social Cognitivism Dimension 4: Measuring Learning 2. Brain Developmentalism & Constructivism - Observation based; cannot study the brain- BF Skinner, Pavlov's dog- "no real difference between learning processes of animals & humans" (199) - Response produce by Stimuli- Stimuli: * teachers / tests * textbooks * teacher comments- Didactic Education Built on Premises about Intelligence: * some are simply more intelligent than others* some are better able to discern stimuli* Boils down to Innate vs. Learned (202) Systems designed to controlbehaviorDidactic teaching (200) 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 1. 1. 1. 3. 3. 3. 3. Accommodation: "taking on board new things as ... experienced" (203) Assimilation: "making sense of new experience" in terms of what is already known (203) - Human and animal brains ARE different- Studying the brain = Learn more about learning- Piaget & Chomsky- Piaget: child learns when developmentally ready- Chomsky: language instinct; disproves behaviourism (203)- Constructivism: Learning via accommodation & assimilation * Nurture over Nature* Culture provides the meaning-making raw materials, "to make sense of the world" (207)* Vygotsky, Symbol Systems, Representation Zone of Proximal Development:* Learning shapes the brain* The purpose of New Learning & education* "you are as smart as your surroundings" (209)* Cognition is social double click to change this header text! Every human has the same capacity to learn! * Question of innate vs. learned* Brain is co-constructed by the infant; "resources for meaning supplied from the surrounding culture" (208)*Nature provides affordances * Potentialities fulfilled by learning* Learning "capacities are a cultural inheritance" (208) * Authentic Education: learner is an active participant (205)* Conditions needed in which student learner can "construct understanding" (205)* Piaget: must see the students' readiness before teaching * "individualistic understandings of cognition and learning" (212)* Add more "socio-cultural factors to Brain Developmentalism (205)* "Human intelligence is social" (206) Because of the social dimension of learning, we recognize that"there can be enormous variety in knowledge and learning" (212)
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