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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 THE MIGHTY MITOCHONDRIA What purpose does it serve? Well to begin... Mitochondria are organelles (part of a cell) whose main purpose are to convert energy. They oxidize glucose to produceenergy that the cell can use. Thisprocess is known as cellular respiration, which makes ATP, a molecule which the cell can use as a source of energy! What are some macromolecules present in the mitochondria? To elaborate further on the mitochondria but not go too far in depth, we'll begin with two of the four macromolecules found in the membrane: PROTEINS and LIPIDS PROTEINS LIPIDS Where are they located? PROTEINS LIPIDS What are Proteins and Lipids? Lipids Proteins Proteins are macromoleculesconsisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins performa vast array of functions with living organisms including catalyzing metabolic reactions,replicating DNA,responding to stimuli,and transporting molecules from one location to another. Lipids are a group of naturallyoccurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluable vitamins, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids and others. The main functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting asstructural components of cell membranes. Moving along... What is the function of a membrane? Cell membranes serve as a protective barrier, regulate transport in and out of cells (selectively permeable), allow for cell recognition, provide a binding site for enzymes, and contain the cytoplasm. Membranesare important because they keep an internally balanced condition of cellsand even allow for movement for some unicellular organisms. Materials are transported across the cell membrane through the processes of passive transport (doesn't require energy),facilitated transport (usage of specific molecules), and active transport (requires energy). All in all, what is the purpose of the Mitochondria? The mitochondria's main role in the cell is to take glucose, and to use the energy stored in its chemical bonds to make ATP in a process called cellular respiration. There are three main steps to this process: glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, and ETC. This ATP is then released from the mitochondria, and broken downby the other organelles of the cell to power their own functions. Glycolysis Kreb's Cycle Electron TransportChain the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid. This occurs in the cytoplasm. the sequence of reactions by which most living cellsgenerate energy during the process of aerobic respiration. It consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide and water as waste products, and convertingADP to energy rich ATP. This occurs in the matrix. a series of compounds thattransfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptorsvia redox reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane. This creates an electrochemical proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis, or the generation of chemical energy in the form of ATP. This occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Overall, the mitochondria lacks most of the enzymes to perform glycolysis, but those enzymes are particularly abundant in the cytoplasm, hence the reason glycolysis occurs there. As for the ETC and Kreb's cycle, the ETC occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria because the NADH and FADH2 produced by the Kreb's cycle releases a proton and electron to produce NAD+ AND FAD+. The proton is pulled into the intermembrane spaceby the energy of the electrons going through the ETC. The electronis finally accepted by oxygen in the matrix. The protons return to the mitochondrial matrix through the process of chemiosmosis through the protein, ATP synthase. What structures work with the mitochondria to function? *Cytoplasm- Glycolysis occurs inthe cytoplasm, therefore releasingchemical energy. This energy is captured and transported to the mitochondria where it is used to make ATP. Without cytoplasm, glycolysis would notbe able to occur and it would prevent thewhole process of cellular respiration. Cytoplasmhelps the mitochondria make the transition in the steps of cellular respiration. *Rough ER- The rough ER is mainly responsible for the synthesis and processing of proteins that are either secretedfrom the cell or that end up stuck in the plasma membrane. This helps the mitochondria by providing one of the major macromolecules found in its membrane. *Plasma Membrane- the Plasmamembrane assists the mitochondriabecause it takes in glucose and transports it through the cytoskeleton to the mitochondria. This initiatesthe whole process of cellular respiration. All in all... The mitochondria helps the whole cell by producing the energy needed for organisms to remain active and function properly. When it leads to Cellular respiration, it provides the sustenance required for cells to gain useful energy to fuel cellular activity. Without the mitochondria, organisms and cells wouldn't have the necessary energy to carry outnecessary functions to work and live healthily. Thanks for reading! Devon Nguyen, Evan FurtnerBlandBiology H, A419 December 2014
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