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Created with Fabric.js 1.4.5 Middle Childhood Development Developmental Domain Teacher Guide Amanda Rivera & Jacob Meneley MTE/506 University of Phoenix 12/15/14 Teacher Info: Reference: Jean Piaget theorized that middle childhood uses mental operations to imagine the consequences of something happening without it actually happening. For instance, children at this age can perform math problems in their mind without writing them down. Their way of thinking is more concrete and less abstract. Children begin to master multiple operations in middle childhood that include conservation, decentration, reversibility, hierarchical classification, seriation, and spatial reasoning. Physical development Social development Childs physical abilities are at full potential. Height and weight tends to taper off and increase slowly. Kids become more competent and confident and find a little independence. They are not as clingy to their parents and have friends in and outside of school. Kids start comparing themselves to others. They develop friendships that are really important to them. Cognitivedeveloment Children now think logically and their thinking is concrete. Child is able to classify, sort, and organize facts even though they are incapable of generalizing abstractions. They understand the concept of conservation where liquid in a short, wide cup is equal to that in a tall, narrow cup. Languagedevelopment After progressing through telegraphic speech where 3 or more words are put together children then begin to learn the differences between the different types of speech i.e. egocentric, private, social and developing metalinguistic abilities.Next comes the ability to read and write language. Moral develoment Kohlberg explains this stage as conventional morality where moral judgment sets in moving beyond simple right and wrong and weighing in on what you want others to perceive you as, usually referred to as positive character traits. Activitiesfor the classroom Read more advanced books that address choices, decisions, and consequences and talk about them in a group setting. Give students moral dilemmas to evaluate and work through and discuss. Picture board assignments/drawings etc. to show understanding. Kids make friends at school and after school activities and sports. Kids start having parties and slumber parties with their friends. They are drawn to friends with similar interests and partake in those interests with one another.Learning: develop metalinguistic abilities and awareness and practice balanced reading approach.Play: ask, answer, and respond in conveying that same words have multiple meanings and practice knowledge telling in topic specific writing.Reading more advanced books and understanding plot; writing letters, sentences, and paragraphs; adding, subtracting, multiplication, and division; classes include science, geography, social science, history, and arts; memory games and studying for tests.Learning: understand importance of physical activity in avoiding obesity etc. and make it fun.Play: promote active play during recesses and/or PE either through traditional or non-traditional sports and activities. Piagets Concrete Operations How can teachers address social and emotional development in your chosen age?-Understand that there can be cultural differences in understanding emotions.-Different emotions can by symptoms of more serious emotional problems.-School-age children make social comparisons where they begin to compare themselves to others and self-esteem usually drops during this stage.-Development of self and finding their identity (self-concept) and help build students (self-esteem) through positive affirmation.-Students come into their own gender and ethnic identities during this period so it is important to avoid stereotypes. How should teachers shape morality for this age group?-A number of environmental forces influence morality but teachers can use positive and negative reinforcements to help promote decision-making. -Help children shift from simple moral knowledge to moral judgment (shift from right and wrong thinking to a higher level of why it is important to know the difference and place personal values in the equation).How will teachers positively influence the development of moral reasoning and self-control in this age group? -Use moral dilemmas that take into account emotions such as empathy, sympathy, and guilt and help develop a positive conscious that internalizes information and situations in order to make an intelligent and/or appropriate response.-Implement character education programs such as Character Counts!What are possible effects seen in the classroom of maltreatment or neglect during development.-Poverty, child abuse, and racial discrimination are all examples of risk factors that can impede childrens development. As a result of these types of factors, children are at greater risk for negative growth both physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally. -Always look for signs of abuse: teachers are mandatory reporters and must be prepared to file a report through school administration and/or child protective services. What are possible effects seen in the classroom of different learning disabilities including mental health and mental disorders?-Learning disabilities related to language: dyslexia (difficulty with distinguishing or separating the sounds in spoken words, creating problems when learning to spell and read written words) and dysgraphia (difficulty with spelling, handwriting, or expressing thoughts on paper).-Learning disorders may include the following and are not limited to: ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) various language disorders, and autism spectrum disorders where children with autism often have serious difficulties with speech that can range from a lack of any language to echolalia (in which children repeat what is said to them instead of responding).-Mental health disorders may include but are not limited to the following: depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorders (separation anxiety, panic anxiety, different phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and generalized anxiety disorder).-Know the signs/be aware and be prepared to make recommendations for testing and/or second opinions for children as it is in their best interest to be diagnosed so that they may begin treatment for disabilities and/or disorders. Levine, Laura E. & Munsch, Joyce (2014). Child Development. An Active Learning Approach, Second Edition. Sage Publications.
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